Ursula K Rohlwink

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BACKGROUND Paediatric traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is a major public health problem. However, recent epidemiological data for PTBI in South Africa (SA) are lacking. OBJECTIVES To establish a demographic profile of severe PTBI admissions to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH) over a 5-year period, by investigating trends in annual(More)
BACKGROUND Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is a cornerstone of care for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Management of ICP can help ensure adequate cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. However, studies indicate that brain hypoxia may occur despite normal ICP and the relationship between ICP and brain oxygenation is poorly defined. This is(More)
INTRODUCTION Posttraumatic brain ischemia or hypoxia is a major potential cause of secondary injury that may lead to poor outcome. Avoidance, or amelioration, of this secondary injury depends on early diagnosis and intervention before permanent injury occurs. However, tools to monitor brain oxygenation continuously in the neuro-intensive care unit have been(More)
BACKGROUND Central nervous system (CNS) infections present a major burden of disease worldwide and are associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Swift diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment are vital to minimize the risk of poor outcome; however, tools are lacking to accurately diagnose infection, assess injury severity, and predict(More)
PURPOSE Although intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is a cornerstone of care for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the indications for ICP monitoring in children are unclear. Often, decisions are based on head computed tomography (CT) scan characteristics. Arguably, the patency of the basal cisterns is the most commonly used of these signs. Although(More)
PURPOSE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Preventing secondary injury by controlling physiological parameters (e.g. intracranial pressure [ICP], cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP] and brain tissue oxygen [PbtO2]) has a potential to improve outcome. Low PbtO2 is independently associated with poor clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Pediatric tuberculous meningitis (TBM) leads to high rates of mortality and morbidity. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment are challenging; imaging findings play a key role in establishing the presumptive diagnosis. General brain imaging findings are well reported; however, specific data on cerebral vascular and spinal involvement in(More)
AIM Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a lethal and commonly occurring form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in children, often complicated by hydrocephalus which worsens outcome. Despite high mortality and morbidity, little data on the impact on neurodevelopment exists. We examined the clinical characteristics, and clinical and neurodevelopmental outcomes of(More)
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remains a major cause of death and disability in tuberculosis-endemic areas, especially in young children and immunocompromised adults. Research aimed at improving outcomes is hampered by poor standardization, which limits study comparison and the generalizability of results. We propose standardized methods for the conduct of(More)
INTRODUCTION The frequency of adverse events, such as cerebral ischemia, following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often debated. Point-in-time monitoring modalities provide important information, but have limited temporal resolution. PURPOSE This study examines the frequency of an adverse event as a point prevalence at 24 and 72 h post-injury, compared(More)