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The Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands, the ephrins, are important regulators of axon guidance and cell migration in the developing nervous system. Inactivation of the EphA4 gene results in axon guidance defects of the corticospinal tract, a major descending motor pathway that originates in the cortex and terminates at all levels of(More)
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, and are also important regulators of extracellular matrix. They are among the most potent angiogenic factors known. Evidence suggests the FGFs play a role in glomerular development and pathology. The aim of the present study was to determine whether FGF-1 (acidic FGF) and(More)
While photoreceptor loss is the most devastating result of inherited retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa, inner retinal neurons also undergo significant alteration. Detailing these changes has become important as many vision restorative therapies target the remaining neurons. In this study, the rd1-Fos-Tau-LacZ (rd1-FTL) mouse model was used(More)
Many common causes of blindness involve the death of retinal photoreceptors, followed by progressive inner retinal cell remodeling. For an inducible model of retinal degeneration to be useful, it must recapitulate these changes. Intravitreal administration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has recently been found to induce acute photoreceptor death. The aim(More)
This paper presents progress in the characterization and application of diamond penetrating electrode arrays for Epi-Retinal Prostheses. Electrical stimulation of degenerate retina has already been shown to restore partial vision for some blind patients, albeit at low spatial resolution. Higher resolution may be achievable by building arrays with electrodes(More)
PURPOSE The chemokine, Ccl2, and the fractalkine receptor, Cx3cr1, have both been implicated in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD), with mice lacking both genes exhibiting features of AMD by 3 months of age. However, recent reports indicate that this ascribed phenotype is due to the presence of a retinal degeneration mutation(More)
The p75 low affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75) can induce apoptosis in various neuronal and glial cell types. Because p75 is expressed in the cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, p75 knockout mice may be expected to show an increased number of neurons in this region. Previous studies, however, have produced conflicting results, suggesting that(More)
Because of controversy about the role of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR) ) in the cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF), we investigated this region in p75(NTR) third exon knockout mice that were congenic with 129/Sv controls. They express a shortened intracellular form of p75(NTR) , permitting detection of p75(NTR) -expressing cells. We performed(More)
Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is required for active accumulation of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) into vesicles for purinergic neurotransmission, however, the cell types that express VNUT in the central nervous system remain unknown. This study characterized VNUT expression within the mammalian retina and brain and assessed a possible functional(More)
Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands are involved in some of the most important steps during the development of the central nervous system, including cell migration, axon guidance, topographic mapping and synapse formation. Moreover, in the adult, they have been implicated in plasticity and regulation of neural stem cell function. One(More)