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T cell maturation requires the rearrangement of clonotypic T cell receptors (TCR) capable of interacting with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ligands to initiate positive and negative selection. Only 3-5% of thymocytes mature to join the peripheral T cell pool. To investigate the basis for this low success rate, we have measured the frequency of(More)
B cells are important effectors and regulators of adaptive and innate immune responses, inflammation and autoimmunity, for instance in anti-NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Thus, pharmacological modulation of B-cell function could be an effective regimen in therapeutic strategies. Since the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist memantine is clinically applied(More)
Mouse spleen contains CD4+, CD8alpha+, and CD4-/CD8alpha- dendritic cells (DCs) in a 2:1:1 ratio. An analysis of 70 surface and cytoplasmic antigens revealed several differences in antigen expression between the 3 subsets. Notably, the Birbeck granule-associated Langerin antigen, as well as CD103 (the mouse homologue of the rat DC marker OX62), were(More)
Cellular decisions are determined by complex molecular interaction networks. Large-scale signaling networks are currently being reconstructed, but the kinetic parameters and quantitative data that would allow for dynamic modeling are still scarce. Therefore, computational studies based upon the structure of these networks are of great interest. Here, a(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ligand-gated ion channels that play an important role in neuronal development, plasticity, and excitotoxicity. NMDAR antagonists are neuroprotective in animal models of neuronal diseases, and the NMDAR open-channel blocker memantine is used to treat Alzheimer's disease. In view of the clinical application of these(More)
Sepsis induces extensive death of lymphocytes that may contribute to the immunosuppression and mortality of the disorder. The serine/threonine kinase Akt is a key regulator of cell proliferation and death. The purpose of this study was to determine whether overexpression of Akt would prevent lymphocyte apoptosis and improve survival in sepsis. In addition,(More)
By studying mice in which the Nfatc1 gene was inactivated in bone marrow, spleen, or germinal center B cells, we show that NFATc1 supports the proliferation and suppresses the activation-induced cell death of splenic B cells upon B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation. BCR triggering leads to expression of NFATc1/αA, a short isoform of NFATc1, in splenic B(More)
The signals that direct differentiation of T cells to the CD4 or CD8 lineages in the thymus remain poorly understood. Although it has been relatively easy to direct differentiation of CD4 single positive (CD4+) cells using combinations of antibodies and pharmacological agents that mimic receptor engagements, equivalent stimuli do not induce efficient(More)
We have investigated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by looking specifically at the effects of inhibitors of MAPK-activating enzyme, MAPK/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK), during the positive selection step from double-positive to single-positive (SP)(More)
CD4+CD8+ thymocytes are either positively selected and subsequently mature to CD4 single positive (SP) or CD8 SP T cells, or they die by apoptosis due to neglect or negative selection. This clonal selection is essential for establishing a functional self-restricted T cell repertoire. Intracellular signals through the three known mitogen-activated protein(More)