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Wild-type stomata are distributed nonrandomly, and their density is controlled by endogenous and exogenous factors. In the Arabidopsis mutant stomatal density and distribution1-1 (sdd1-1), the establishment of the stomatal pattern is disrupted, resulting in stomata clustering and twofold to fourfold increases in stomatal density. The SDD1 gene that encodes(More)
The genetic code is universal, but recombinant protein expression in heterologous systems is often hampered by divergent codon usage. Here, we demonstrate that reprogramming by standardized multi-parameter gene optimization software and de novo gene synthesis is a suitable general strategy to improve heterologous protein expression. This study compares(More)
Two types of root nodule symbioses are known for higher plants, legume and actinorhizal symbioses. In legume symbioses, bacterial signal factors induce the expression of ENOD40 genes. We isolated an ENOD40 promoter from an actinorhizal plant, Casuarina glauca, and compared its expression pattern in a legume (Lotus japonicus) and an actinorhizal plant(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana possesses three RpoT genes which encode three different phage-type RNA polymerases with yet unknown function in organelle transcription: RpoTm and RpoTp, imported into mitochondria and plastids, respectively, and RpoTmp, co-targeted into both organelles. Expression of the RpoT genes was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, histochemical(More)
In the past two years, major advances in our knowledge of the cellular events involved in the formation of stomatal complexes, particularly those responsible for the establishment of the stomatal pattern, have been made. These events are altered in the Arabidopsis mutants sdd1-1, tmm and flp. Molecular cloning of the SDD1 gene initiated the elucidation of(More)
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