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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases. To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin(More)
Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour, is currently treated with nonspecific cytotoxic therapies including surgery, whole-brain radiation, and aggressive chemotherapy. As medulloblastoma exhibits marked intertumoural heterogeneity, with at least four distinct molecular variants, previous attempts to identify targets for therapy(More)
Despite the histological similarity of ependymomas from throughout the neuroaxis, the disease likely comprises multiple independent entities, each with a distinct molecular pathogenesis. Transcriptional profiling of two large independent cohorts of ependymoma reveals the existence of two demographically, transcriptionally, genetically, and clinically(More)
Genomic rearrangements are thought to occur progressively during tumor development. Recent findings, however, suggest an alternative mechanism, involving massive chromosome rearrangements in a one-step catastrophic event termed chromothripsis. We report the whole-genome sequencing-based analysis of a Sonic-Hedgehog medulloblastoma (SHH-MB) brain tumor from(More)
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a fatal brain cancer that arises in the brainstem of children, with no effective treatment and near 100% fatality. The failure of most therapies can be attributed to the delicate location of these tumors and to the selection of therapies on the basis of assumptions that DIPGs are molecularly similar to adult(More)
PURPOSE Choroid plexus carcinomas are pediatric tumors with poor survival rates and a strong, but poorly understood, association with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Currently, with lack of biologic predictors, most children are treated with aggressive chemoradiation protocols. PATIENTS AND METHODS We established a multi-institutional tissue and clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome have a high lifetime risk of developing cancer. We assessed the feasibility and potential clinical effect of a comprehensive surveillance protocol in asymptomatic TP53 mutation carriers in families with this syndrome. METHODS We implemented a clinical surveillance protocol, using frequent biochemical and(More)
BACKGROUND Identification of robust biomarkers of malignancy and methods to establish disease progression is a major goal in paediatric neuro-oncology. We investigated whether methylation of the TERT promoter can be a biomarker for malignancy and patient outcome in paediatric brain tumours. METHODS For the discovery cohort, we used samples obtained from(More)
Ependymomas are common childhood brain tumours that occur throughout the nervous system, but are most common in the paediatric hindbrain. Current standard therapy comprises surgery and radiation, but not cytotoxic chemotherapy as it does not further increase survival. Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing of 47 hindbrain ependymomas reveals an extremely(More)
PURPOSE To uncover the genetic events leading to transformation of pediatric low-grade glioma (PLGG) to secondary high-grade glioma (sHGG). PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively identified patients with sHGG from a population-based cohort of 886 patients with PLGG with long clinical follow-up. Exome sequencing and array CGH were performed on available(More)