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The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is routinely assessed in clinical evaluation of vision and is the primary limiting factor in how well one sees. CSF improvements are typically brought about by correction of the optics of the eye with eyeglasses, contact lenses or surgery. We found that the very act of action video game playing also enhanced contrast(More)
Neurons in the primary visual cortex are selective for the size, orientation and direction of motion of patterns falling within a restricted region of visual space known as the receptive field. The response to stimuli presented within the receptive field can be facilitated or suppressed by other stimuli falling outside the receptive field which, when(More)
Long-range spatial interactions in human visual cortex were explored using a lateral masking paradigm. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) elicited by a Gabor signal presented in isolation or in the presence of two flanking high-contrast Gabor signals (masks) were measured. Response amplitude and phase were recorded for a vertically oriented test, for(More)
Practicing certain visual tasks leads, as a result of a process termed "perceptual learning," to a significant improvement in performance. Learning is specific for basic stimulus features such as local orientation, retinal location, and eye of presentation, suggesting modification of neuronal processes at the primary visual cortex in adults. It is not(More)
Amblyopia is a neuronal abnormality of vision that is often considered irreversible in adults. We found strong and significant improvement of Vernier acuity in human adults with naturally occurring amblyopia following practice. Learning was strongest at the trained orientation and did not transfer to an untrained task (detection), but it did transfer(More)
Neural interactions between widely separated stimuli were explored with psychophysical and visual evoked potential (VEP) measures in normal and amblyopic observers. Contrast detection thresholds were measured psychophysically for small foveally viewed Gabor patches presented in isolation and in the presence of similar, but laterally displaced flanks. The(More)
PURPOSE To determine the nature and limits of visual improvement through repetitive practice in human adults with naturally occurring amblyopia. METHODS A key measure the authors used was a psychophysical estimate of Vernier acuity; persons with amblyopia have marked deficits in Vernier acuity that are highly correlated with their loss of Snellen acuity.(More)
Single-cell responses in visual cortex to a target falling within their receptive field can be modified by collinear flanking stimuli concurrently presented outside the receptive field. Here, we report the presence of four types of contrast-dependent lateral effects: (1) facilitation at low target contrasts and suppression at high contrasts, (2)(More)
The visibility of gratings improves with increasing stimulus area. This effect is usually interpreted as being due to physiological summation within the extent of the largest spatial filter and due to probability summation between the outputs of linear, independent filters beyond that range. It is generally assumed that this improvement is isotropic to the(More)