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BACKGROUND Present interferon-based standard of care treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is limited by both efficacy and tolerability. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and antiviral activity of an all-oral combination treatment with two experimental anti-HCV drugs-RG7128, a nucleoside polymerase inhibitor; and danoprevir, an NS3/4A(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The interaction between HBV replication and immune modulatory effects mediated by IFNα therapy is not well understood. We characterized the impact of HBV DNA replication on the early IFNα-induced immunomodulatory mechanisms. METHODS We interrogated the transcriptional, serum cytokine/chemokine and cellular immune profiles of 28 patients(More)
UNLABELLED The Eastern woodchuck (Marmota monax) is naturally infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), a hepadnavirus closely related to the human hepatitis B virus (HBV). The woodchuck is used as an animal model for studying chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans, but the lack of sequence information has(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Although interleukin 28B (interferon, lambda 3) (IL28B) genotype affects the response of patients with chronic hepatitis C to peginterferon and ribavirin, little is known regarding its effect on response to direct-acting antivirals in interferon-free combinations. We analyzed the effects of IL28B genotype on the viral kinetic (VK) response(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Achievement of HBsAg loss remains the hallmark of chronic hepatitis B treatment. In order to identify host factors contributing to treatment-induced HBsAg loss, we performed a genome-wide screen of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and studied its immunological consequence. METHODS Chronic hepatitis B patients (40 HBeAg-positive and(More)
Virus-specific CD8 T cells are activated when their T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize the specific viral peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (pMHC) complexes present on the surface of infected cells. Antibodies able to recognize the specific pMHC can mimic TCR specificity and both represent a valuable biological tool to visualize pMHC(More)
A mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis has been isolated that is simultaneously resistant to both D-cycloserine (D-CS) and vancomycin. Genetic complementation with a PBP4 homolog restores sensitivity to both drugs. Resistance to D-CS and vancomycin in this mutant is most likely due to a novel mechanism involving peptidoglycan assembly at the cell surface.
To the Editor: We the undersigned, founders and leaders of biotech companies, write to express our deep concern and opposition to the executive order signed by President Donald Trump on January 27, 2017, barring the entry of citizens from seven countries into the United States1. The United States is the world’s greatest developer of medicines and new(More)
In a cohort of 95 chronic hepatitis B patients, who were treated with peg-interferon and adefovir for 1 year, and who had 15% HBsAg loss (overall), no association was found between IL28B polymorphisms and HBeAg seroconversion or HBsAg clearance. These findings suggest that any association with outcome, if present, is less than that seen in chronic hepatitis(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Precore (PC) and basal core promoter (BCP) mutations are associated with responses to interferon-based treatment in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Here, we identify viral minority variants in these regions and assess association with response to peginterferon-alfa (Peg-IFN) and adefovir combination therapy. PATIENTS(More)
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