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BACKGROUND Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes profound changes in secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and glucose metabolism. We present a detailed analysis of the early hormone changes after RYGB in response to three different oral test meals designed to provide this information without causing side effects (such as dumping). METHODS We(More)
Incretin-based therapies, such as the injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and orally administered dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, have recently been introduced into clinical practice. At present, the GLP-1 receptor agonists need to be administered once or twice daily. Several once-weekly GLP-1 receptor agonists are in(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of 4 weeks of treatment with liraglutide on insulin dose and glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients with and without residual β-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten type 1 diabetic patients with residual β-cell function (C-peptide positive) and 19 without (C-peptide negative) were studied. All(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify factors contributing to the variation in weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). DESIGN Cross-sectional study of patients with good (excess body mass index lost (EBL) >60%) and poor weight loss response (EBL <50%) >12 months after RYGB and a lean control group matched for age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixteen(More)
Glucagon secretion plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic glucose production, and elevated fasting and postprandial plasma glucagon concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) contribute to their hyperglycaemia. The reason for the hyperglucagonaemia is unclear, but recent studies have shown lack of suppression after oral but(More)
CONTEXT The mechanism by which glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) suppresses glucagon secretion is uncertain, and it is not determined whether endogenous insulin is a necessary factor for this effect. OBJECTIVE To characterize the alpha- and beta-cell responses to GLP-1 in type 1 diabetic patients without residual beta-cell function. METHODS Nine type 1(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of exogenous as well as endogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on postprandial glucose excursions and to characterize the secretion of incretin hormones in type 1 diabetic patients with and without residual β-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight type 1 diabetic patients with (T1D+), eight without (T1D-)(More)
GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) is a peptide hormone secreted from endocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa in response to meals. The major effects of GLP-1 are to increase glucose-induced insulin secretion and reduce glucagon release, but GLP-1 also inhibits gastric emptying rate and reduces appetite and bodyweight in obese subjects. In vivo studies using(More)
BACKGROUND Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes extensive changes in gastrointestinal anatomy and leads to reduced appetite and large weight loss, which partly is due to an exaggerated release of anorexigenic gut hormones. METHODS To examine whether the altered passage of foods through the gastrointestinal tract after RYGB could be responsible for the(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The glucagon gene (GCG) encodes several hormones important for energy metabolism: glucagon, oxyntomodulin and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and -2. Variants in GCG may associate with type 2 diabetes, obesity and/or related metabolic traits. METHODS GCG was re-sequenced as a candidate gene in 865 European individuals. Twenty-nine variants(More)