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Genotypic or phenotypic markers for characterization of natural populations of marine microalgae have typically addressed questions regarding differentiation among populations, usually with reference to a single or few clonal isolates. Based upon a large number of contemporaneous isolates from the same geographical population of the toxigenic species(More)
The athecate, pseudocolonial polykrikoid dinoflag-ellates show a greater morphological complexity than many other dinoflagellate cells and contain not only elaborate extrusomes but sulci, cinguli, flagellar pairs, and nuclei in multiple copies. Among polykrikoids, Polykrikos kofoidii is a common species that plays an important role as a grazer of toxic(More)
Unicellular dinoflagellates are an important group of primary producers within the marine plankton community. Many of these species are capable of forming harmful algae blooms (HABs) and of producing potent phycotoxins, thereby causing deleterious impacts on their environment and posing a threat to human health. The recently discovered toxigenic(More)
Members of the marine dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium are known to exude allelochemicals, unrelated to well-known neurotoxins (PSP-toxins, spirolides), with negative effects on other phytoplankton and marine grazers. Physico/chemical characterization of extracellular lytic compounds of A. tamarense, quantified by Rhodomonas salina bioassay, showed that the(More)
Marine chemical ecology comprises the study of the production and interaction of bioactive molecules affecting organism behavior and function. Here we focus on bioactive compounds and interactions associated with phytoplankton, particularly bloom-forming diatoms, prymnesiophytes and dinoflagellates. Planktonic bioactive metabolites are structurally and(More)
Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot(More)
MPTP is a murine homolog of the human T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) and the rat PTP-S enzyme. Enzymatic activity of this ubiquitously expressed protein was demonstrated in immunoprecipitates from NIH 3T3 cells and in recombinant protein overexpressed in bacteria. Expression of beta-galactosidase-MPTP MPTP chimeric proteins in COS1 cells(More)
For an algal bloom to develop, the growth rate of the bloom-forming species must exceed the sum of all loss processes. Among these loss processes, grazing is generally believed to be one of the more important factors. Based on numerous field studies, it is now recognized that microzooplankton are dominant consumers of phytoplankton in both open ocean and(More)
A strain of a dinoflagellate belonging to the genus Azadinium was obtained by the incubation of sediments collected from Shiwha Bay, Korea. This report of the genus Azadinium is the first outside of northern Europe and furthermore from the Pacific Ocean. The diagnostic morphological features of the isolate very closely resemble the recently described(More)