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New neurons are continuously added in specific regions of the adult mammalian central nervous system. These neurons are derived from multipotent stem cells whose identity has been enigmatic. In this work, we present evidence that ependymal cells are neural stem cells. Ependymal cells give rise to a rapidly proliferating cell type that generates neurons that(More)
Neuronal regeneration does generally not occur in the central nervous system (CNS) after injury, which has been attributed to the generation of glial scar tissue. In this report we show that the composition of the glial scar after traumatic CNS injury in rat and mouse is more complex than previously assumed: expression of the intermediate filament nestin is(More)
The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of(More)
In response to injury of the central nervous system, astrocytes become reactive and express high levels of the intermediate filament (IF) proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and nestin. We have shown that astrocytes in mice deficient for both GFAP and vimentin (GFAP-/-vim-/-) cannot form IFs even when nestin is expressed and are thus(More)
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells of the cerebral cortex express receptors for the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and downregulate expression of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin during early postnatal development, coincident with the onset of cortical BDNF expression. During this period, mice lacking BDNF have elevated levels of Reelin(More)
The structure of rat brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is complex; four 5' exons are linked to separate promoters and one 3' exon is encoding the BDNF protein. To analyze the relative importance of the regulatory regions in vivo, we have generated transgenic mice with six different promoter constructs of the BDNF gene fused to the(More)
In the present study, we describe micro-surgical methods for simultaneous implantation of a microdialysis probe and an intraventricular injection cannula via their respective guide cannulas into the mouse brain. Basal and stimulated release of acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) was determined in the ventral hippocampus of freely(More)
Mitochondrial morphology is controlled by two opposing processes: fusion and fission. Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1) and hFis1 are two key players of mitochondrial fission, but how Drp1 is recruited to mitochondria and how Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission is regulated in mammals is poorly understood. Here, we identify the vertebrate-specific protein(More)
Multipotential stem cells in the neural tube give rise to the different neuronal cell types found in the brain. Abrupt changes in intermediate filament gene expression accompany this transition out of the precursor state: transcription of the intermediate filament nestin is replaced by that of the neurofilaments. In order to identify human neural precursor(More)
In most parts of the peripheral nervous system galanin is expressed at very low levels. To further understand the functional role of galanin, a mouse overexpressing galanin under the platelet-derived growth factor-B was generated, and high levels of galanin expression were observed in several peripheral tissues and spinal cord. Thus, a large proportion of(More)