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New neurons are continuously added in specific regions of the adult mammalian central nervous system. These neurons are derived from multipotent stem cells whose identity has been enigmatic. In this work, we present evidence that ependymal cells are neural stem cells. Ependymal cells give rise to a rapidly proliferating cell type that generates neurons that(More)
Multipotential CNS stem cells receive and implement instructions governing differentiation to diverse neuronal and glial fates. Exploration of the mechanisms generating the many cell types of the brain depends crucially on markers identifying the stem cell state. We describe a gene whose expression distinguishes the stem cells from the more differentiated(More)
Changes in intermediate filament gene expression occur at key steps in the differentiation of cell types in the mammalian CNS. Neuroepithelial stem cells express the intermediate filament protein nestin and down-regulate it sharply at the transition from proliferating stem cell to postmitotic neuron. Nestin is also expressed in muscle precursors but not in(More)
Neuronal regeneration does generally not occur in the central nervous system (CNS) after injury, which has been attributed to the generation of glial scar tissue. In this report we show that the composition of the glial scar after traumatic CNS injury in rat and mouse is more complex than previously assumed: expression of the intermediate filament nestin is(More)
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells of the cerebral cortex express receptors for the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and downregulate expression of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin during early postnatal development, coincident with the onset of cortical BDNF expression. During this period, mice lacking BDNF have elevated levels of Reelin(More)
The pancreas contains both exocrine and endocrine cells, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the differentiation of these cell types are largely unknown. Despite their endodermal origin, pancreatic endocrine cells share several molecular characteristics with neurons, and, like neurons in the central nervous system, differentiating endocrine cells in(More)
The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of(More)
The structure of rat brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is complex; four 5' exons are linked to separate promoters and one 3' exon is encoding the BDNF protein. To analyze the relative importance of the regulatory regions in vivo, we have generated transgenic mice with six different promoter constructs of the BDNF gene fused to the(More)
In response to injury of the central nervous system, astrocytes become reactive and express high levels of the intermediate filament (IF) proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and nestin. We have shown that astrocytes in mice deficient for both GFAP and vimentin (GFAP-/-vim-/-) cannot form IFs even when nestin is expressed and are thus(More)
The Drosophila Notch gene encodes a transmembrane receptor involved in the regulation of cell fate. It exerts its effect by lateral specification, inductive signaling and is also important for cell adhesion and axonal pathfinding. In this report we analyse the expression of the three mammalian Notch homologues during early mouse development by in situ(More)