Unto T Häkkinen

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This paper presents a comparison of horizontal equity in health care utilization in 10 European countries and the US. It does not only extend previous work by using more recent data from a larger set of countries, but also uses new methods and presents disaggregated results by various types of care. In all countries, the lower-income groups are more(More)
This paper presents evidence on income-related inequalities in self-assessed health in nine industrialized countries. Health interview survey data were used to construct concentration curves of self-assessed health, measured as a latent variable. Inequalities in health favoured the higher income groups and were statistically significant in all countries.(More)
The most important reform in Finnish health care in the last decade occurred at the beginning of 1993 as part of a broader change to the entire state subsidy system. This reform reduced central government control and increased the freedom of the municipalities in the provision of health services. In addition, an unusually severe economic recession in the(More)
OBJECTIVES Several risk indices have been developed for the prediction of postoperative mortality and morbidity in coronary artery bypass operations, in which the risk scores are currently recorded as routine praxis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the risk scores can be used to predict the hospital (LOS) and postoperative (POS)(More)
BACKGROUND Bed rest and back-extension exercises are often prescribed for patients with acute low back pain, but the effectiveness of these two competing treatments remains controversial. METHODS We conducted a controlled trial among employees of the city of Helsinki, Finland, who presented to an occupational health care center with acute, nonspecific low(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Previous studies show better outcomes for patients with stroke receiving care in stroke units, but many different stroke unit criteria have been published. In this study, we explored whether stroke centers fulfilling standardized Brain Attack Coalition criteria produce better patient outcomes than hospitals without stroke centers. (More)
The aim of this article is to measure and explain income-related inequalities in dentist utilisation. We apply concentration and horizontal inequity indices and the decomposition method to decompose observed inequalities into sources. The data are from the Finnish Health Care Survey of 1996. We examine three measures of utilisation: (a) the total number of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Stroke databases are established to systematically evaluate both the treatment and outcome of stroke patients and the structure and processes of stroke services. Comprehensive data collection on this common disease is resource-intensive, and national stroke databases often include only patients from selected hospitals. Here we(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyse the association between quality of care and technical (productive) efficiency in institutional long-term care wards for the elderly. SETTING One hundred and fourteen public health centre hospitals and residential homes in Finland. STUDY DESIGN Wards were divided into two categories according to their rank in the quality(More)