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The flow paths and instabilities of gravity driven infiltration of a wetting fluid into a porous medium are studied. The model experiments and simulations independently represent techniques to study the unsaturated flow in porous media, and they produce a consistent picture of how the paths of fluid transport form and depend on the relative strength of the(More)
Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollutant affecting plants worldwide. Plants in northern regions can display more ozone injury than plants at lower latitudes despite lower ozone levels. Larger ozone influx and shorter nights have been suggested as possible causes. However, the effects of the dim light present during northern summer nights have not been(More)
Effects of the inlet and outlet position on flow patterns of saturated fluids in a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland were investigated experimentally using a quasi two-dimensional flow cell representing a vertical cross-section in the longitudinal direction of the wetland. The filter medium consisted of glass beads that were either uniformly(More)
A root growth chamber is described which allows seedling root growth dynamics and structure to be monitored continuously under a variety of conditions for several weeks. The chamber consists of two cells with inner dimensions 18×20×0.12 cm. To simulate the soil matrix, each cell was filled with spherical glass beads of 0.1 cm diameter. Given the 0.12 cm(More)
Water beneath a layer of oil in a producing reservoir may rise and form a bell-shaped cone in the vicinity of the well. We discuss how the dynamics of cone formation in two dimensions depends on the gravitational contrast, the interfacial tension, and the flow rate of oil. For a constant flow rate below a critical rate Q(c), stable cones are formed. At(More)
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