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Biomarkers are urgently needed for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in Parkinson's disease. Both DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein, two proteins critically involved in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis, have been tested as disease biomarkers in several recent studies with inconsistent results. These have been largely due to variation in the protein(More)
Deficits in forepaw adjusting steps in rats have been proposed as a non-drug-induced model of the akinesia associated with Parkinson's disease. The present study examined the relationship between contralateral forepaw adjusting steps and dopamine depletion after medial forebrain bundle lesions with 6-hydroxydopamine. Depletion of striatal dopamine by >80%(More)
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral midbrain nuclei, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc, A9) and ventral tegmental area (VTA, A10), play important roles in the control of movement, emotion, cognition, and reward related behavior. Although several transcription factors have been shown to be critical for midbrain DA neuron development, there has been no(More)
The circuitry important for voluntary movement is influenced by dopamine from the substantia nigra and regulated by the nigrostriatal system. The basal ganglia influence the pyramidal tract and other motor systems, such as the mesopontine nuclei and the rubrospinal tract. Although the neuroanatomical substrates underlying motor control are similar for(More)
OBJECTIVE There is a clear need to develop biomarkers for Parkinson disease (PD) diagnosis, differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders, and monitoring disease progression. We and others have demonstrated that a decrease in DJ-1 and/or α-synuclein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a potential index for Parkinson disease diagnosis, but not for PD(More)
Treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) dramatically relieves associated motor deficits, but L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID) limit the therapeutic benefit over time. Previous investigations have noted changes in striatal medium spiny neurons, including abnormal activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2(More)
The A9 dopaminergic (DA) neuronal group projecting to the dorsal striatum is the most vulnerable in Parkinson's disease (PD). We genetically engineered mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to express the transcription factors Nurr1 or Pitx3. After in vitro differentiation of Pitx3-expressing ES cells, the proportion of DA neurons expressing aldehyde(More)
The role of dopamine as a vulnerability factor and a toxic agent in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still controversial, yet the presumed dopamine toxicity is partly responsible for the "DOPA-sparing" clinical practice that avoids using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), a dopamine precursor, in early PD. There is a lack of studies on animal models that(More)
Mutations found in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a putative mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase of unknown function, have been linked to autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. It is suggested that mutations can cause a loss of PINK1 kinase activity and eventually lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. In this report, we examined the subcellular(More)
Because of their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into diverse cell types, embryonic stem (ES) cells are a potential source of cells for transplantation therapy of various diseases, including Parkinson's disease. A critical issue for this potential therapy is the elimination of undifferentiated cells that, even in low numbers, could result in(More)