Umesh Parashar

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To estimate the global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease, we reviewed studies published from 1986 to 2000 on deaths caused by diarrhea and on rotavirus infections in children. We assessed rotavirus-associated illness in three clinical settings (mild cases requiring home care alone, moderate cases requiring a clinic visit, and severe cases(More)
We conducted a systematic review of studies that used reverse transcription-PCR to diagnose norovirus (NoV) infections in patients with mild or moderate (outpatient) and severe (hospitalized) diarrhea. NoVs accounted for 12%(95% confidence interval [CI] 10%-15%) of severe gastroenteritis cases among children <5 years of age and 12% (95% CI 9%-15%) of mild(More)
Studies published between 1986 and 1999 indicated that rotavirus causes approximately 22% (range 17%-28%) of childhood diarrhea hospitalizations. From 2000 to 2004, this proportion increased to 39% (range 29%-45%). Application of this proportion to the recent World Health Organization estimates of diarrhea-related childhood deaths gave an estimated 611,000(More)
The development of rotavirus vaccines that are based on heterotypic or serotype-specific immunity has prompted many countries to establish programs to assess the disease burden associated with rotavirus infection and the distribution of rotavirus strains. Strain surveillance helps to determine whether the most prevalent local strains are likely to be(More)
From the Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (R.I.G.); the Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (R.I.G., U.D.P.); and Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (M.K.E.).(More)
BACKGROUND WHO recommends routine use of rotavirus vaccines in all countries, particularly in those with high mortality attributable to diarrhoeal diseases. To establish the burden of life-threatening rotavirus disease before the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine, we aimed to update the estimated number of deaths worldwide in children younger than 5 years(More)
We retrospectively investigated two outbreaks of encephalitis in Meherpur and Naogaon, Bangladesh, which occurred in 2001 and 2003. We collected serum samples from persons who were ill, their household contacts, randomly selected residents, hospital workers, and various animals. Cases were classified as laboratory confirmed or probable. We identified 13(More)
BACKGROUND As new rotavirus vaccines are being introduced in immunization programs, global and national estimates of disease burden, especially rotavirus-associated mortality, are needed to assess the potential health benefits of vaccination and to monitor vaccine impact. METHODS We identified 76 studies that were initiated after 1990, lasted at least 1(More)
Recently, two rotavirus vaccines have been recommended for routine immunization of infants worldwide. These vaccines proved efficacious during clinical trials and field use in both developing and developed countries, and appear to provide good protection against a range of rotavirus genotypes, including some that are not included in the vaccines. However,(More)