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To improve existing social bookmarking systems and to design new ones, researchers and practitioners need to understand how to evaluate tagging behavior. In this paper, we analyze over two years of data from CiteULike, a social bookmarking system for tagging academic papers. We propose six tag metrics-tag growth, tag reuse, tag non-obviousness, tag(More)
Although there has been significant research into gender regarding educational and workplace practices, there has been little investigation of gender differences pertaining to problem solving with programming tools and environments. As a result, there is little evidence as to what role gender plays in programming tools---and what little evidence there is(More)
It is unclear if and how collaboratories have enhanced distributed scientific collaboration. Furthermore, little is known in the way of design strategies to support such collaboration. This paper presents findings from an investigation into requirements for collaboration in e-science in the context of CiteSeer, a search engine and digital library of(More)
Mobile Education or M-Education is a new conceptual paradigm in the use of mobile and wireless technologies for education. M-Education encourages distributed peer collaboration over wireless devices and desktop computers to create opportunities for discovery and education in the field and community. It is a projectoriented approach that will use a wireless(More)
We are investigating how to empower nonprofit community organizations to develop the information technology management practices required to carry out their civic goals. We highlight our methodology of working with nonprofit organizations through three case examples from the field. These examples illustrate that nonprofit organizations are able to and can(More)
Programmers of all types from novice end-user developers to professional software engineers make use of application programming interfaces (API) within their various designs. And, while the use of these interfaces is ubiquitous, there is little research about their design. Recently, a number of researchers and practitioners have begun to treat API design as(More)
Social bookmarking services have recently gained popularity among Web users. Whereas numerous studies provide a historical account of tagging systems, the authors use their analysis of a domain-specific social bookmarking service called CiteULike to reflect on two metrics for evaluating tagging behavior: tag growth and tag reuse. They examine the(More)
API usability tests in the lab are time and resource intensive, thus allowing a relatively small percentage of the API namespace to be evaluated. We describe a group-based usability inspection method -- API Peer Reviews -- to evaluate API usability. Based on an analysis of usability breakdowns from API Peer Reviews and API usability tests, results show that(More)
As technology becomes more embedded in our daily lives, there is a great deal of hope about the use of information technology to achieve positive community outcomes like increasing access to local information, promoting civic engagement, and creating avenues for collaboration and communication. While these technologies provide opportunities for community(More)
We are interested in supporting creativity in distributed scientific communities through socio-technical interventions. Based on a synthetic literature analysis of creativity and collaborative groups, we present and justify three requirements for supporting creativity: support for divergent and convergent thinking, development of shared objectives, and(More)