Umberto Mura

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Bovine lens sorbitol dehydrogenase (L-iditol:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.14) (SDH) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity (51 U/mg of protein) and characterized for both kinetic and some structural properties. The enzyme proves to be a homotetramer of 156 kDa containing one equivalent of zinc ion per subunit. Metal chelators such as EDTA and(More)
Bovine lens aldose reductase (ALR2) is inactivated by copper ion [Cu(II)] through an oxygen-independent oxidative modification process. A stoichiometry of 2 equiv of Cu(II)/enzyme mol is required to induce inactivation. While metal chelators such as EDTA or o-phenantroline prevent but do not reverse the ALR2 inactivation, DTT allows the enzyme activity to(More)
Aldose reductase is inactivated by physiological disulfides such as GSSG and cystine. To study the mechanism of disulfide-induced enzyme inactivation, we examined the rate and extent of enzyme inactivation using wild-type human aldose reductase and mutants containing cysteine-to-serine substitutions at positions 80 (C80S), 298 (C298S), and 303 (C303S). The(More)
The glutathionyl-modified aldose reductase (GS-ALR2) is unique, among different S-thiolated enzyme forms, in that it displays a lower specific activity than the native enzyme (ALR2). Specific interactions of the bound glutathionyl moiety (GS) with the ALR2 active site, were predicted by a low perturbative molecular modelling approach. The outcoming GS(More)
Non-carboxylic acid containing bioisosteres of (5-arylidene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acids, which are active as aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitors, were designed by replacing the carboxylic group with the trifluoromethyl ketone moiety. The in vitro evaluation of the ALR2 inhibitory effects of these trifluoromethyl substituted derivatives led to the(More)
Bovine lens aldose reductase (ALR2), which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), is readily inactivated by its own substrate in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Both DTT and NADP+ can prevent enzyme inactivation but neither extensive dialysis nor thiol-reducing treatment were able to restore enzyme activity once(More)
Two unique polypeptides, 22.4 and 16.4 kDa, were prominent in some human cataracts. Both proteins were identified as modified forms of the small heat shock protein, alphaB-crystallin. The concentration of total alphaB-crystallin in most of these cataracts was significantly increased. The 22.4-kDa protein was subsequently designated as alphaB(g). Mass(More)
1. Uricase (urate: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.7.3.3) was purified 750-fold from the liver of Camelus dromedarius. 2. The enzyme is a tetramer with a Mr of 100,000, displays high specificity for uric acid with a Km of 12 microM and is inhibited by a selected number of purine derivatives carrying oxygen at the C2 position. 3. The effect of pH and the(More)
PURPOSE To establish whether the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) in the aqueous humor may contribute to maintain the high concentration of AA of the anterior eye tissues during oxidative stress. METHODS Primary cultures of bovine lens epithelial cells (BLEC) were incubated in a medium with the concentration of AA, glutathione (GSH), and cysteine (Cys)(More)
Significantly higher hypoxanthine over uric acid ratios were found in camel plasma and urine, with respect to those of zebu. Enzyme levels of purine catabolism were markedly lower in camel than in zebu liver. Oxidation of hypoxanthine appears to be the limiting step of purine metabolism in camel liver. Any hepatic hypoxanthine appears to be actively(More)