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BACKGROUND Diarrhoeal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income countries. We designed the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to identify the aetiology and population-based burden of paediatric diarrhoeal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. METHODS The GEMS is a 3-year, prospective, age-stratified,(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is estimated to cause 2 million deaths every year in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important cause of severe pneumonia. We aimed to assess the efficacy of a nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. METHODS We undertook a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in eastern Gambia. Children age(More)
The oral, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV), RotaTeq was assessed for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children in two multi-site, randomized, placebo-controlled field trials; one in Asia (Vietnam and Bangladesh) and the other in sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Kenya and Mali). The efficacy results for the Mali site of the(More)
BACKGROUND Study of meningococcal carriage is essential to understanding the epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis infection. METHODS Twenty cross-sectional carriage surveys were conducted in 7 countries in the African meningitis belt; 5 surveys were conducted after introduction of a new serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac).(More)
In Bamako, Mali, where surveillance revealed a high incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease, Hib conjugate vaccine was introduced into the Expanded Program on Immunization and the impact assessed. Annual confirmed Hib hospitalizations for infants 0-11 months of age fell from 175/10(5) to 44/10(5) (P < 0.001); among infants 6-7(More)
Beyond the morbidity and mortality burden of childhood diarrhea in sub-Saharan African are significant economic costs to affected households. Using survey data from 3 of the 4 sites in sub-Saharan Africa (Gambia, Kenya, Mali) participating in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), we estimated the direct medical, direct nonmedical, and indirect(More)
BACKGROUND In 2010, Africa's first preventive meningococcal mass vaccination campaign was launched using a newly developed Neisseria meningitidis group A (NmA) polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), designed specifically for the meningitis belt. Given PsA-TT's recent introduction, the duration of protection against(More)
Background. The etiologic inference of identifying a pathogen in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of children with pneumonia is unclear. To determine if viral load could provide evidence of causality of pneumonia, we compared viral load in the URT of children with World Health Organization-defined severe and very severe pneumonia and age-matched community(More)
Background. Chest radiographs (CXRs) are frequently used to assess pneumonia cases. Variations in CXR appearances between epidemiological settings and their correlation with clinical signs are not well documented. Methods. The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health project enrolled 4232 cases of hospitalized World Health Organization (WHO)-defined(More)
Background. Variable adherence to standardized case definitions, clinical procedures, specimen collection techniques, and laboratory methods has complicated the interpretation of previous multicenter pneumonia etiology studies. To circumvent these problems, a program of clinical standardization was embedded in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child(More)