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The immunostimulatory properties of synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have been studied in various mammalian models including humans and mice. However, little was known about effects of CpG ODNs on immune responses of chickens, a common avian species with important economical value in the poultry industry. In the present study, two CpG ODNs, 2006(More)
India is located between 8.4 and 37.6 degrees N latitude with the majority of its population living in regions experiencing ample sunlight throughout the year. Historically, Indians obtained most of their vitamin D through adequate sun exposure; however, darker skin pigmentation and the changes which have accompanied India's modernization, including(More)
Two experimental approaches were used to investigate the immunological responses of chickens to a commercial killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccine. In the first, the effects of host age on antigen-specific proliferative responses and cytokine production were examined. Compared with non-vaccinated controls, 4-wk-old vaccinated chickens showed higher(More)
This study was conducted to compare growth performance, gut morphometry, and parameters of local and systemic immunity in broiler chickens fed for 22 consecutive days with a diet supplemented with Bacillus spp. as direct-fed microbials (DFM), a commercial product incorporating 3 DFM, or a nonsupplemented diet. Direct-fed microbials did not significantly(More)
The impact of live and killed Salmonella vaccines on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was investigated in 18- and 32-week-old White Leghorn chickens, by assessing splenic lymphocyte proliferation, expression of IL-2 mRNA in concanavalin A (Con A) stimulated cells and flow cytometric analysis of cell subpopulations. Con A and Salmonella enteritidis (SE) flagella(More)
Lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 levels in serum were measured as indicators of cell-mediated immunity after immunization of chickens with a commercial killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccine or experimental subunit vaccines of crude protein (CP) extract or the outer membrane protein (OMP). Significantly increased proliferative(More)
Listeria monocytogenes, isolated from outbreaks in either human or nonhuman primate populations, was administered orally at doses ranging from 10(6) to 10(10) CFU. Four of 10 treated animals delivered stillborn infants. L. monocytogenes was isolated from fetal tissue, and the pathology was consistent with L. monocytogenes infection as the cause of pregnancy(More)
Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is one of the leading causes of food-borne salmonellosis, and macrophages play an essential role in eliminating this pathogen. Among the interventions to improve Salmonella clearance in chickens are the use of prebiotics and direct fed microbials (DFM) in animal feed as they have immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, we tested the(More)
Induction of strong cellular immunity will be important for AIDS vaccine candidates. Natural infection with wild-type Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), an orally transmitted organism, is known to generate strong cellular immunity, thus raising the possibility that live attenuated Lm could serve as a vaccine vector. We sought to examine the potential of live(More)
DNA sequence analysis of a chicken interleukin (IL)-15 cDNA identified a 187 amino acid open reading frame encoding a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 21,964Da, two potential N-linked glycosylation sites, four highly conserved Cys residues, two out-of-frame AUG initiation codons in the 5' untranslated region, and an unusually long (66 amino(More)