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This study was conducted to compare growth performance, gut morphometry, and parameters of local and systemic immunity in broiler chickens fed for 22 consecutive days with a diet supplemented with Bacillus spp. as direct-fed microbials (DFM), a commercial product incorporating 3 DFM, or a nonsupplemented diet. Direct-fed microbials did not significantly(More)
Two experimental approaches were used to investigate the immunological responses of chickens to a commercial killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccine. In the first, the effects of host age on antigen-specific proliferative responses and cytokine production were examined. Compared with non-vaccinated controls, 4-wk-old vaccinated chickens showed higher(More)
To understand the role of immune mechanisms in protecting chickens from Salmonella infections, we examined the immune responses of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis-infected chickens and the effect of chicken anemia virus (CAV), a T-cell-targeted virus, on S. enterica serovar Enteritidis-induced immune responses. One-day-old chicks were orally(More)
India is located between 8.4 and 37.6 degrees N latitude with the majority of its population living in regions experiencing ample sunlight throughout the year. Historically, Indians obtained most of their vitamin D through adequate sun exposure; however, darker skin pigmentation and the changes which have accompanied India's modernization, including(More)
Our previous work showed that the cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was enhanced by live Salmonella vaccine (LV). The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of live and killed Salmonella vaccines on Salmonella enteritidis (SE) clearance and to determine if the clearance was mediated by cell-mediated and/or humoral immunity. Chickens were first(More)
The impact of live and killed Salmonella vaccines on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was investigated in 18- and 32-week-old White Leghorn chickens, by assessing splenic lymphocyte proliferation, expression of IL-2 mRNA in concanavalin A (Con A) stimulated cells and flow cytometric analysis of cell subpopulations. Con A and Salmonella enteritidis (SE) flagella(More)
Lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 levels in serum were measured as indicators of cell-mediated immunity after immunization of chickens with a commercial killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccine or experimental subunit vaccines of crude protein (CP) extract or the outer membrane protein (OMP). Significantly increased proliferative(More)
DNA sequence analysis of a chicken interleukin (IL)-15 cDNA identified a 187 amino acid open reading frame encoding a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 21,964Da, two potential N-linked glycosylation sites, four highly conserved Cys residues, two out-of-frame AUG initiation codons in the 5' untranslated region, and an unusually long (66 amino(More)
The immunostimulatory properties of synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have been studied in various mammalian models including humans and mice. However, little was known about effects of CpG ODNs on immune responses of chickens, a common avian species with important economical value in the poultry industry. In the present study, two CpG ODNs, 2006(More)
Macrophages are major effectors against Salmonella infection, and also transport bacteria between host tissues and provide a protected site for intracellular bacterial replication. We hypothesized that differences in chicken macrophage responses to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and serovar Typhimurium (ST) played a role in preferential(More)