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TRPA1 is a receptor expressed by sensory neurons, that is activated by low temperature (<17 degrees C) and plant derivatives such as cinnamaldehyde and isoeugenol, to elicit sensations including pain. Using immunohistochemistry, we have, for the first time, localised TRPA1 in human DRG neurons, spinal cord motoneurones and nerve roots, peripheral nerves,(More)
Calcium-activated potassium ion channels SK and IK (small and intermediate conductance, respectively) may be important in the pathophysiology of pain following nerve injury, as SK channels are known to impose a period of reduced excitability after each action potential by afterhyperpolarization. We studied the presence and changes of human SK1 (hSK1)- and(More)
BACKGROUND The angiotensin II (AngII) receptor subtype 2 (AT2 R) is expressed in sensory neurons and may play a role in nociception and neuronal regeneration. METHODS We used immunostaining with characterized antibodies to study the localization of AT2 R in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and a range of human tissues. The effects(More)
We have studied the effect of key neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on morphology, levels of the vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) and responses to capsaicin in adult human sensory neurons in vitro. Avulsed dorsal root ganglia (DRG, n = 5) were cultured with or without a combination of nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell (line)-derived growth factor (GDNF) and(More)
Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists provide the potential for treating chronic pain states without CNS effects associated with CB1 receptor activation. Animal models suggest that they act mainly via non-neuronal cells, possibly inhibition of inflammatory cells in the periphery or CNS, or via release of beta-endorphin; however, the clinical relevance and(More)
The autofluorescence of biological tissue can be exploited for the detection and diagnosis of disease but, to date, its complex nature and relatively weak signal levels have impeded its widespread application in biology and medicine. We present here a portable instrument designed for the in situ simultaneous measurement of autofluorescence emission spectra(More)
BACKGROUND Oxaliplatin chemotherapy induced neuropathy is a dose related cumulative toxicity that manifests as tingling, numbness, and chronic pain, compromising the quality of life and leading to discontinued chemotherapy. Patients report marked hypersensitivity to cold stimuli at early stages of treatment, when sensory testing reveals cold and heat(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that botulinum neurotoxin A may affect sensory nociceptor fibers, but the expression of its receptors in clinical pain states, and its effects in human sensory neurons, are largely unknown. METHODS We studied synaptic vesicle protein subtype SV2A, a receptor for botulinum neurotoxin A, by immunostaining in a range(More)
Mechanosensitivity in living biological tissue is a study area of increasing importance, but investigative tools are often inadequate. We have developed a noncontact nanoscale method to apply quantified positive and negative force at defined positions to the soft responsive surface of living cells. The method uses applied hydrostatic pressure (0.1-150 kPa)(More)
We report a multifocal multiphoton time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscope system that uses a 16 channel multi-anode PMT detector. Multiphoton excitation minimizes out-of-focus photobleaching, multifocal excitation reduces non-linear in-plane photobleaching effects and TCSPC electronics provide(More)