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Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and zymography in 111 paired CSF and serum samples from patients with various neurological disorders. In 20 patients with blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment but normal CSF cell count, elevated levels of MMP-9 were not observed by ELISA measurement. Another 11(More)
To elucidate effective and long-lasting neuroprotective strategies, we analysed a combination of mitochondrial protection and neurotrophic support in two well-defined animal models of neurodegeneration, traumatic lesion of optic nerve and complete 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion of nigrostriatal pathway. Neuroprotection by BclX(L), Glial cell line-derived(More)
Adeno-associated- (AAV) based vectors are promising tools for gene therapy applications in several organs, including the brain, but are limited by their small genome size. Two short promoters, the human synapsin 1 gene promoter (hSYN) and the murine cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (mCMV), were evaluated in bicistronic AAV-2 vectors for their(More)
Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered primarily as a demyelinating disease, neuronal damage is abundant and correlates with the neurological deficit. Therefore, we investigated the frequency and characteristics of human T cells specific for synapsin-a neuronal protein highly conserved among species. Synapsin specific T cell responses were detected(More)
Functional characterization of disease-related proteins, their splice variants and dominant negative mutants in the context of complex CNS tissues such as brain and retina is frequently assessed by in vivo gene transfer. For correct interpretation of results it is imperative that the protein under investigation is unambiguously detected in the transduced(More)
RNA interference is rapidly becoming a powerful tool for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Introduction of siRNA into primary cells, however, remains one of the major difficulties of this novel technique. Using cationic lipid-based transfection reagents satisfactory transfection results are observed in cell lines, but low transfection efficiency and(More)
BACKGROUND Based on the observation of 7 patients with chronic IgA nephritis and on a course to end-stage renal failure after several years, D'Amico et al. [1993] reported on a "point of no return" at 2.5 to 3 mg/dl serum creatinine. After exceeding this limit all 7 patients exhibited an irreversible progressive renal failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS(More)
Glatiramer acetate (GA), represents an established treatment of relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanisms responsible for the effect of GA are not fully understood. We generated GA-, myelin basic protein (MBP)- and purified protein derivative (PPD)-specific T cell lines from three MS patients and one healthy donor. The GA-specific lines(More)
Determination of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to study blood-brain barrier impairment and immune cell migration in inflammatory neurological diseases recently became a matter of major interest. Regularly, MMP-9 was determined qualitatively or semi-quantitatively by zymography (gelatin gel electrophoresis) or(More)
The Semliki Forest virus (SFV) system has been shown to be highly efficient in transduction of cell lines and primary cells. We employed a novel “noncytotoxic” SFV(PD) vector for transduction of primary ventral midbrain floor cultures in vitro and rat substantia nigra in vivo. Rapid protein expression was noted with preferential transduction of neuronal(More)