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Current antiviral agents can control but not eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV), because HBV establishes a stable nuclear covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Interferon-α treatment can clear HBV but is limited by systemic side effects. We describe how interferon-α can induce specific degradation of the nuclear viral DNA without hepatotoxicity and(More)
Chronic infection is difficult to overcome because of exhaustion or depletion of cytotoxic effector CD8(+) T cells (cytotoxic T lymphoytes (CTLs)). Here we report that signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induced intrahepatic aggregates of myeloid cells that enabled the population expansion of CTLs (iMATEs: 'intrahepatic myeloid-cell aggregates for T(More)
UNLABELLED With about 350 million virus carriers, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem. HBV is a noncytopathic virus causing persistent infection, but it is still unknown whether host recognition of HBV may activate an innate immune response. We describe that upon infection of primary human liver cells, HBV is recognized by(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The molecular biology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been extensively studied but the exact role of the hepatitis B X protein (HBx) in the context of natural HBV infections remains unknown. METHODS Primary human hepatocytes and differentiated HepaRG cells allowing conditional trans complementation of HBx were infected with wild type(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS One major obstacle of hepatitis B virus (HBV) research is the lack of efficient cell culture system permissive for viral infection and replication. The aim of our study was to establish a robust HBV infection model by using hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells. METHODS HLCs were differentiated from human(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The outcome of acute hepatitis B infection may be influenced by host factors like the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). We have investigated MHC class I and class II antigens in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared to a healthy control population. To confirm the findings of this first study we performed a second study in a group(More)