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In day-to-day life, we need to apply strategies to cascade different actions for efficient unfolding of behavior. While deficits in action cascading are examined extensively, almost nothing is known about the neuronal mechanisms mediating superior performance above the normal level. To examine this question, we investigate action control in airplane pilot(More)
The human anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is part of the default-mode network that shows predominant negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We combined fMRI during emotional processing and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements and observed that the concentration of GABA in(More)
CONTEXT Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by diverse metabolic and functional abnormalities that occur in, among other regions, the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), a cortical region linked to anhedonia. OBJECTIVES To contextualize metabolic, functional, and clinical parameters and thus to reveal cellular mechanisms related to(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to excessive levels of manganese (Mn) is known to induce psychiatric and motor disorders, including parkinsonian symptoms. Therefore, finding a reliable means for early detection of Mn neurotoxicity is desirable. OBJECTIVES Our goal was to determine whether in vivo brain levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-acetylaspartate (NAA),(More)
Manganese (Mn), upon absorption, is primarily sequestered in tissue and intracellular compartments. For this reason, blood Mn concentration does not always accurately reflect Mn concentration in the targeted tissue, particularly in the brain. The discrepancy between Mn concentrations in tissue or intracellular components means that blood Mn is a poor(More)
Manganese (Mn) is a well established neurotoxin associated with specific damage to the basal ganglia in humans. The phenotype associated with Mn neurotoxicity was first described in two workers with occupational exposure to Mn oxide (Couper, 1837). Although the description did not use modern clinical terminology, a parkinsonian illness characterized by(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Proton resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) allows noninvasive chemical tissue analysis in the living brain. As neuronal loss and gliosis have been described in narcolepsy, metabolites of primary interest are N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal integrity and myo-Inositol (ml), a glial marker and second messenger involved in the(More)
Quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) amends differential diagnostics of neurological pathology. However, due to technical challenges, it has rarely been applied to the spinal cord and has mainly been restricted to the very upper part of the cervical spine. In this work, an improved acquisition protocol is proposed that takes technical problems(More)
In this work we propose minimum-norm reconstruction as a means to enhance the spatial response behavior in parallel spectroscopic MRI. By directly optimizing the shape of the spatial response function (SRF), the new method accounts for coil sensitivity variation across individual voxels and their side lobes. In this fashion, it mitigates the signal(More)
Changes of various brain metabolites including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), have been reported in panic disorder (PD). Deficits in GABA have been implicated in the pathophysiology of PD. Furthermore, it has been suggested that cortical metabolite changes in PD are familial. Eleven PD patients, including(More)