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CONTEXT Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by diverse metabolic and functional abnormalities that occur in, among other regions, the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), a cortical region linked to anhedonia. OBJECTIVES To contextualize metabolic, functional, and clinical parameters and thus to reveal cellular mechanisms related to(More)
Migraine pathophysiology possibly involves deficient mitochondrial energy reserve and diminished cortical habituation. Using functional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (fMRSI), we studied cortical lactate changes during prolonged visual stimulation to search for different pathophysiological mechanisms in clinically distinct subgroups of migraine(More)
Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disease, which affects the centre of the personality, with severe problems of perception, cognition as well as affective and social behaviour. In cerebrospinal fluid of drug-free schizophrenic patients, a significant decrease in the level of total glutathione (GSH) by 27% (P<0.05) was observed as compared to controls, in(More)
In clinical MR spectroscopy at higher field strengths, lactate may show reduced or absent signal intensity at an echo time of 144 ms. Although this false-negative result may be predicted from theory, experimental verification and clinical impact have not been fully established. Using scanners from 3 major vendors, spectra from phantoms and patients(More)
With growing evidence of long-term neurological damage in individuals enduring repetitive head trauma, it is critical to detect lower-level damage accumulation for the early diagnosis of injury in at-risk populations. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic scans of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex were collected from high school(More)
In day-to-day life, we need to apply strategies to cascade different actions for efficient unfolding of behavior. While deficits in action cascading are examined extensively, almost nothing is known about the neuronal mechanisms mediating superior performance above the normal level. To examine this question, we investigate action control in airplane pilot(More)
In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MR spectroscopy) offers the unique possibility to monitor human brain metabolism in a noninvasive way. At 3.0 T, MR spectroscopy not only profits from higher available signal compared with 1.5 T, but from increased chemical shift dispersion as well. These gains may be exchanged into increased spatial resolution or(More)
Two-dimensional (2D) strong-coupling point-resolved spectroscopy (S-PRESS) is introduced as a novel approach to (1)H MR spectroscopy (MRS) in the prostate. The technique provides full spectral information and allows for an accurate characterization of the citrate (Cit) signal. The method is based on acquiring a series of PRESS spectra with constant total(More)
The human anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is part of the default-mode network that shows predominant negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We combined fMRI during emotional processing and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements and observed that the concentration of GABA in(More)
Manganese (Mn) is a well established neurotoxin associated with specific damage to the basal ganglia in humans. The phenotype associated with Mn neurotoxicity was first described in two workers with occupational exposure to Mn oxide (Couper, 1837). Although the description did not use modern clinical terminology, a parkinsonian illness characterized by(More)