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Sex steroids play a dominant role in breast carcinogenesis by still largely unknown mechanisms. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been extensively studied in the context of matrix biology but it is not known if sex steroids affect MMPs in breast cancer. MMPs degrade extracellular matrix components enabling tumor cell invasion and metastasis, but may(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are important regulators of tumor progression and angiogenesis. MMPs generate both proangiogenic and antiangiogenic fragments, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and endostatin. The in vivo activation of MMPs and endostatin generation occur mainly in the extracellular environment by interactions of different cell(More)
Angiogenesis is regulated by the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), acting via the receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, is a key mediator of tumour angiogenesis. The soluble form of the VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) is an important negative regulator of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. The majority of breast(More)
Sex steroid exposure constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about the effects of sex steroids on the normal breast, largely because of the lack of convenient models. We have developed a method of culturing normal breast tissue ex vivo. We have applied this method to investigate the effects of estradiol and progesterone on the key(More)
PURPOSE Angiogenin, a 14.2-kDa polypeptide member of the RNase A superfamily, has potent angiogenic effects. Nuclear accumulation of angiogenin is essential for its angiogenic activity. Increased angiogenin expression has been associated with the transition of normal breast tissue into invasive breast carcinoma. In this article, we investigated whether(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) promotes cancer progression by regulating tumor cell growth and angiogenesis and high levels of TGF-beta1 have been associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. We have previously reported anti-angiogenic effects of the anti-estrogen tamoxifen in breast cancer, by increased(More)
Author manuscripts have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication but have not yet been edited. Author manuscripts have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication but have not yet been edited. Translational relevance Estrogen is a crucial regulator of normal breast physiology and a major risk factor for breast cancer. There is a need to elucidate(More)
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