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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are historically the most thoroughly characterized type of adult stem cell, and the hematopoietic system has served as a principal model structure of stem-cell biology for several decades. However, paradoxically, although HSCs can be defined by function and even purified to near-homogeneity, the intricate molecular machinery(More)
Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of growth factors have been shown to regulate the in vitro proliferation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Working at a common level of convergence for all TGF-beta superfamily signals, Smad4 is key in orchestrating these effects. The role of Smad4 in HSC function has(More)
The Smad-signaling pathway downstream of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of ligands is an evolutionarily conserved signaling circuitry with critical functions in a wide variety of biologic processes. To investigate the role of this pathway in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we have blocked Smad signaling by retroviral gene(More)
OBJECTIVE Maintained quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is of critical importance to prevent premature exhaustion of the stem cell pool under conditions of hematopoietic stress. The growth inhibitory cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) has been shown to play a critical role in maintaining quiescence of HSCs in vitro. Here, we have(More)
BACKGROUND Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate essential processes during organogenesis, and a functional understanding of these secreted proteins depends on identification of their target cells. In this study, we generate a transgenic reporter for organogenesis studies that we use to define BMP pathway activation in the developing kidney. RESULTS(More)
Blood is a tissue with high cellular turnover, and its production is a tightly orchestrated process that requires constant replenishment. All mature blood cells are generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are the self-renewing units that sustain lifelong hematopoiesis. HSC behavior, such as self-renewal and quiescence, is regulated by a wide(More)
Stimulation of CD4(+) helper T lymphocytes by antigen-presenting cells requires the degradation of exogenous antigens into antigenic peptides which associate with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules in endosomal or lysosomal compartments. B lymphocytes mediate efficient antigen presentation first by capturing soluble antigens through(More)
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