Ulrich Zaehringer

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are cell-surface components of Gram-negative bacteria and are microbe-/pathogen-associated molecular patterns in animal pathosystems. As for plants, the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction in response to LPS are not known. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana reacts to LPS with a rapid burst of NO, a hallmark of innate(More)
Although the role of Toll-like receptors in extracellular bacterial sensing has been investigated intensively, intracellular detection of bacteria through Nod molecules remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that human Nod1 specifically detects a unique diaminopimelate-containing N-acetylglucosamine-N-acetylmuramic acid (GlcNAc-MurNAc) tripeptide(More)
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is required for the recognition of numerous molecular components of bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The breadth of the ligand repertoire seems unusual, even if one considers that TLR2 may form heteromers with TLRs 1 and 6 (ref. 12), and it is likely that additional proteins serve as adapters for TLR2 activation. Here we show that(More)
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) derived from Streptococcus pneumoniae, purified employing a chloroform/methanol protocol, and from Staphylococcus aureus, prepared by the recently described butanol extraction procedure, was investigated regarding its interaction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-2 and -4, and MD-2.(More)
Omega6- and omega3-polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids represent important components of the human diet. A more regular consumption and an accordingly sustainable source of these compounds are highly desirable. In contrast with the very high levels to which industrial fatty acids have to be enriched in plant oils for competitive use as chemical feedstocks, much(More)
Endotoxins of Gram-negative microbes fulfill as components of the outer membrane a vital function for bacterial viability and, if set free, induce in mammalians potent pathophysiological effects. Chemically, they are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) consisting of an O-specific chain, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid component, termed lipid A. The latter(More)
In algae, the biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3; DHA) proceeds via the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3; EPA) to 22:5omega3, which is required as a substrate for the final Delta4 desaturation. To isolate the elongase specific for this step, we searched expressed sequence tag and genomic databases from the algae Ostreococcus(More)
Phaeodactylum tricornutum is an unicellular silica-less diatom in which eicosapentaenoic acid accumulates up to 30% of the total fatty acids. This marine diatom was used for cloning genes encoding fatty acid desaturases involved in eicosapentaenoic acid biosynthesis. Using a combination of PCR, mass sequencing and library screening, the coding sequences of(More)
Seed-specifically expressed β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase genes of Brassica napus (Bn-FAE1.1 genes) were cloned from two cultivars, namely Askari, a high-erucic-acid type, and Drakkar, a low-erucic-acid type. The genes from the two cultivars were found to be nearly identical. They encode proteins of 507 amino acids, the sequences of which differ only at position(More)
A recently cloned cDNA from sunflower codes for a fusion protein composed of an N-terminal cytochrome b5 and a domain similar to membrane-bound acyl lipid desaturases. For a functional identification, homologous cDNAs from Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and sphingolipid long chain bases were analyzed. The(More)