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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are cell-surface components of Gram-negative bacteria and are microbe-/pathogen-associated molecular patterns in animal pathosystems. As for plants, the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction in response to LPS are not known. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana reacts to LPS with a rapid burst of NO, a hallmark of innate(More)
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is required for the recognition of numerous molecular components of bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The breadth of the ligand repertoire seems unusual, even if one considers that TLR2 may form heteromers with TLRs 1 and 6 (ref. 12), and it is likely that additional proteins serve as adapters for TLR2 activation. Here we show that(More)
In algae, the biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3; DHA) proceeds via the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3; EPA) to 22:5omega3, which is required as a substrate for the final Delta4 desaturation. To isolate the elongase specific for this step, we searched expressed sequence tag and genomic databases from the algae Ostreococcus(More)
Glucosylceramides are membrane lipids in most eukaryotic organisms and in a few bacteria. The physiological functions of these glycolipids have only been documented in mammalian cells, whereas very little information is available of their roles in plants, fungi, and bacteria. In an attempt to establish appropriate experimental systems to study(More)
Although the role of Toll-like receptors in extracellular bacterial sensing has been investigated intensively, intracellular detection of bacteria through Nod molecules remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that human Nod1 specifically detects a unique diaminopimelate-containing N-acetylglucosamine-N-acetylmuramic acid (GlcNAc-MurNAc) tripeptide(More)
Growth of the yeast species Candida albicans and Pichia pastoris is inhibited by RsAFP2, a plant defensin isolated from radish seed (Raphanus sativus), at micromolar concentrations. In contrast, gcs-deletion mutants of both yeast species are resistant toward RsAFP2. GCS genes encode UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferases, which catalyze the final step in(More)
Culture supernatants from Treponema maltophilum associated with periodontitis in humans and Treponema brennaborense found in a bovine cattle disease accompanied with cachexia caused a dose-dependent TNF-alpha synthesis in human monocytes increasing with culture time. This activity could be reduced significantly by blocking the CD14-part of the LPS receptor(More)
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) derived from Streptococcus pneumoniae, purified employing a chloroform/methanol protocol, and from Staphylococcus aureus, prepared by the recently described butanol extraction procedure, was investigated regarding its interaction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-2 and -4, and MD-2.(More)
Of all pattern recognition receptors (PRR) in innate immunity, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes the structurally broadest range of different bacterial compounds known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2 agonists identified so far are lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from different bacterial strains, lipoproteins, (synthetic)(More)
Seed-specifically expressed beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase genes of Brassica napus (Bn-FAE1.1 genes) were cloned from two cultivars, namely Askari, a high-erucic-acid type, and Drakkar, a low-erucic-acid type. The genes from the two cultivars were found to be nearly identical. They encode proteins of 507 amino acids, the sequences of which differ only at(More)