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Several lines of evidence indicate that disturbances of the central serotonergic system are involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. Recent studies have indicated that a newly identified second isoform of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH2) is preferentially involved in the rate limiting synthesis of neuronal(More)
BACKGROUND Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, including major depression (MD). The aim of this study was to examine whether a co-occurrence of MD is associated with structural changes in the amygdala of BPD patients. METHODS Twenty-five right-handed, female patients with BPD and(More)
CONTEXT Glutamatergic neurotransmission is implicated in alcohol-drinking behavior in animal models. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether genetic variations in glutamatergic neurotransmission genes, which are known to alter alcohol effects in rodents, contribute to the genetic basis of alcoholism in humans. DESIGN Association analysis of alcohol dependence(More)
BACKGROUND Antiepileptics have been shown to reduce alcohol intake or to prevent relapse in patients with alcoholism. GOAL To investigate if the new antiepileptic levetiracetam (LEV) prevents relapse after detoxification compared with placebo in patients with alcohol dependence. METHODS Two hundred one patients were included in the prospective,(More)
Disturbances of aggression and impulse control are important symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, which is involved in the control of these types of behaviour. The aim of our study was to investigate potential structural changes of the hippocampal formation in BPD and to evaluate if these are(More)
OBJECTIVE The planum temporale, a highly asymmetric neocortical area of the temporal lobe, has a possible role in schizophrenia. The authors used three different anatomical definitions of the planum temporale to examine the anterior, posterior, and total planum temporale gray matter volumes simultaneously. METHOD Magnetic resonance imaging was used to(More)
OBJECTIVE The study was conducted to explore the effects of EGb 761 (Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany) on neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and cognition in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS One hundred and sixty patients with MCI who scored at least 6 on the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were enrolled in(More)
AIM Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are extracellularly acting endopeptidases, whose substrates are extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins. In the gene polymorphism studies MMP-9 has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of heart disease, cancer, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. In animal models MMP-9 has been shown to play a key role in(More)
OBJECTIVE In previous studies, factors related to a history of suicide attempts in persons with alcohol dependence have included sociodemographic variables, a more severe course of alcoholism, additional substance use disorders, and psychiatric comorbidity. This 5-year prospective study evaluated attributes associated with suicide attempts in a group of(More)
There is recognition that biomedical research into the causes of mental disorders and their treatment needs to adopt new approaches to research. Novel biomedical techniques have advanced our understanding of how the brain develops and is shaped by behaviour and environment. This has led to the advent of stratified medicine, which translates advances in(More)