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Clotting is critical in limiting loss of hemolymph and initiating wound healing in insects as well as in vertebrates. Clotting is also an important immune defense, quickly forming a secondary barrier to infection, thereby immobilizing, and possibly killing bacteria directly. Here, we describe methods to assess clotting and to extract the clot from(More)
We have cloned a Drosophila homolog of the membrane fusion protein CDC48/p97. The open reading frame of the Drosophila homolog encodes an 801 amino acid long protein (TER94), which shows high similarity to the known CDC48/p97 sequences. The chromosomal position of TER94 is 46 C/D. TER94 is expressed in embryo, in pupae and in imago, but is suppressed in(More)
The molecular mechanism by which polydnaviruses of endoparasitoid wasps disrupt cell-mediated encapsulation reactions of host insects is largely unknown. Here we show that a polydnavirus-encoded protein, produced from baculovirus and plasmid expression vectors, prevents cell surface exposure of lectin-binding sites and microparticle formation during immune(More)
Insects and mammals share an ancient innate immune system comprising both humoral and cellular responses. The insect immune system consists of the fat body, which secretes effector molecules into the hemolymph and several classes of hemocytes, which reside in the hemolymph and of protective border epithelia. Key features of wound- and immune responses are(More)
Clotting systems are required in almost all animals to prevent loss of body fluids after injury. Here, we show that despite the risks associated with its systemic activation, clotting is a hitherto little appreciated branch of the immune system. We compared clotting of human blood and insect hemolymph to study the best-conserved component of clotting(More)
BACKGROUND The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factors have the ability to remodel nucleosomes and play essential roles in key developmental processes. SWI/SNF complexes contain one subunit with ATPase activity, which in Drosophila melanogaster is called Brahma (Brm). The regulatory activities of SWI/SNF have been attributed to its influence on chromatin(More)
Evidence for serine protease inhibitor activity in the ovarian calyx fluid of the endoparasitoid Venturia canescens Abstract Endoparasitic wasps are able to develop inside permissive host insects due to their ability to overcome or evade the host's immune system. In the present study, we provide experimental evidence that ovarian calyx fluid of the(More)
Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the(More)
Our goal is to characterize the innate immune response against the early stage of tumor development. For this, animal models where genetic changes in specific cells and tissues can be performed in a controlled way have become increasingly important, including the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Many tumor mutants in Drosophila affect the germline and, as(More)
The immune defence of an organism is evolving continuously, causing counteradaptations in interacting species, which in turn affect other ecological and evolutionary processes. Until recently comparative studies of species interactions and immunity, combining information from both ecological and immunological fields, have been rare. The cellular immune(More)