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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, starting in early childhood and persisting into adulthood in the majority of cases. Family and twin studies have demonstrated the importance of genetic factors and candidate gene association studies have identified several loci that exert small but significant effects(More)
According to the Cognitive Complexity and Control (CCC) theory, the development of executive function can be understood in terms of age-related increases in the maximum complexity of the rules children can formulate and use when solving problems. This Monograph describes four studies (9 experiments) designed to test hypotheses derived from the CCC theory(More)
The effects of pergolide, a mixed D1/D2 receptor agonist, and bromocriptine, a selective D2 receptor agonist, were assessed in a visual delay task to further investigate the "dopamine link" of working memory in humans and to look for differential D1 versus D2 receptor contributions. Two groups of 32 healthy young adults (16 female) received either 0.1 mg of(More)
Cognitive functions dependent on the prefrontal cortex, such as the ability to suppress behavior (response inhibition) and to learn from complex feedback (probabilistic learning), play critical roles in activities of daily life. To what extent do different neurochemical systems modulate these two cognitive functions? Here, using stop-signal and(More)
BACKGROUND Atomoxetine, a highly selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), shows efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compared with psychostimulants, atomoxetine has a distinct mode of brain action and potentially lower addictive potential. Studies have yet to assess whether atomoxetine improves cognition(More)
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25) of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2(More)
n dystrophic mice, a model of merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, laminin-2 mutations produce peripheral nerve dysmyelination and render Schwann cells unable to sort bundles of axons. The laminin receptor and the mechanism through which dysmyelination and impaired sorting occur are unknown. We describe mice in which Schwann cell–specific(More)
During development of the mammalian cerebral cortex, radial glial cells (RGCs) generate layer-specific subtypes of excitatory neurons in a defined temporal sequence, in which lower-layer neurons are formed before upper-layer neurons. It has been proposed that neuronal subtype fate is determined by birthdate through progressive restriction of the neurogenic(More)
Mechanoelectrical transduction, the conversion of mechanical force into electrochemical signals, underlies a range of sensory phenomena, including touch, hearing and balance. Hair cells of the vertebrate inner ear are specialized mechanosensors that transduce mechanical forces arising from sound waves and head movement to provide our senses of hearing and(More)