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By emitting strong fetid scents, sapromyiophilous flowers mimic brood and food sites of flies to attract them as pollinators. To date, intensive comparative scent analyses have been restricted to sapromyiophilous Araceae. Here, we analysed flower volatiles of fetid stapeliads to improve our understanding of the floral biology of fly pollinated species, and(More)
The myiophilous pollination syndrome of stapeliads is investigated. Olfactory stimuli, imitating dung or decaying organic (zoogenic or phytogenic) matter, are used as attractants, together with mimetic colouration and, sometimes mimetic sculpturing. In most species nectar is present. The nectar mainly serves as optical attractant causing brilliance effects,(More)
Since molecular analyses have demonstrated that Sarcostemma R. Br. is deeply nested in the predominantly Madagascan stem-succulent clade of Cynanchum L., the genus has been treated as a synonym of Cynanchum. Some of the former Sarcostemma species have been transferred to Cynanchum in the course of various Flora treatments, and some new species belonging to(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Ceropegia (Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae) is a large, Old World genus of >180 species, all of which possess distinctive flask-shaped flowers that temporarily trap pollinators. The taxonomic diversity of pollinators, biogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of pollinator exploitation, and the level of specificity of interactions(More)
 Representatives of nearly all genera of the taxon-rich stem-succulent stapeliads and most of the few related, leafy genera were analyzed. Sequence data from two non-coding molecular markers (ITS region of nrDNA and trnT-L and trnL-F spacers as well as the trnL intron of cpDNA) support the traditional tribal affiliation of the genera, which form a(More)
The little known Rubiaceae genus Villaria is endemic mostly to the coastal forests of the Philippines. Traditionally, it has been placed in the tribe Gardenieae. Later it was transferred to Octotropideae sensu Robbrecht and Puff. Villaria was placed among the “primitive” genera of the tribe, which are essentially characterized by large fruits, horizontal(More)
 The inclusion of Tenaris and Macropetalum in Brachystelma as proposed by Peckover in 1996 and contested by Victor and Nicholas in 1998 is supported by molecular studies. Parsimony analysis of sequence data from two non-coding molecular markers (ITS region of nrDNA and trnT-L and trnL-F spacers as well as the trnL intron of cpDNA) suggests a well-supported(More)
Four to six percent of plants, distributed over different angiosperm families, entice pollinators by deception [1]. In these systems, chemical mimicry is often used as an efficient way to exploit the olfactory preferences of animals for the purpose of attracting them as pollinators [2,3]. Here, we report a very specific type of chemical mimicry of a food(More)