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Olfactory sensory neurons expose to the inhaled air chemosensory cilia which bind odorants and operate as transduction organelles. Odorant receptors in the ciliary membrane activate a transduction cascade which uses cAMP and Ca(2+) for sensory signaling in the ciliary lumen. Although the canonical transduction pathway is well established, molecular(More)
The cilia of mammalian olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) represent the sensory interface that is exposed to the air within the nasal cavity. The cilia are the site where odorants bind to specific receptors and initiate olfactory transduction that leads to excitation of the neuron. This process involves a multitude of ciliary proteins that mediate(More)
High-intensity photocoagulator lesions placed nasally to the optic disc one eye destroyed all retinal layers and led to visual deafferentation of the lateral part of layer A in the contralateral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of adult cats. The retino-geniculate topography was determined with vertical tungsten microelectrode penetrations through LGN(More)
This paper describes the large capacity hierarchical branch predictor in the 5.5 GHz IBM zEnterprise EC12 microprocessor. Performance analyses in a simulation model and on zEC12 hardware demonstrate the benefit of this hierarchy compared to a smaller one level predictor. Novel structures and algorithms for two level branch prediction are presented.(More)
Macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) represent alternative differentiation options of bone marrow progenitors and blood monocytes. This choice profoundly influences the immune response under normal and pathological conditions, but the underlying transcriptional events remain unresolved. Here, we show that experimental activation of the(More)
This paper shows how cross-national variation in labor market attributes, social policies affecting female employment, and divorce laws affect both female labor force participation and divorce. These, in turn, lead to a systematic gendered pattern in the preferences for government spending on social services. Analyzing data on household division of labor(More)
In this paper we discuss a new architecture, which is deployed for multi-standard packet inspection and basic network processing tasks in a high-performance network coprocessor. Thereby, concepts, architecture, compiler tool-chain and VLSI area estimation for this programmable finite state machine based (FSM-based) Processing Engine, FPE, are presented. The(More)