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We consider variational discretization of Neumann-type elliptic optimal control problems with constraints on the control. In this approach the cost functional is approximated by a sequence of functionals, which are obtained by discretizing the state equation with the help of linear finite elements. The control variable is not discretized. Error bounds for(More)
BACKGROUND Psoriasis vulgaris may benefit from treatment with fumaric acid and/or its derivatives; however, because different preparations have been used, results have been contradictory and difficult to interpret. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the therapeutic value of fumaric acid derivatives. METHODS A randomized(More)
The therapeutic effect and the side of effects fumaric acid derivatives used in treatment of psoriasis vulgaris have been subjects of controversy for more than 30 years. A total of 83 patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris were investigated in a single-centre, long-term open (12 months) clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of the(More)
A histological-immunohistological study was conducted to investigate the effect of systemically administered fumaric acid esters (FAEs) on epidermal thickness and composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in psoriatic plaques. The very first effect of systemic therapy with FAEs is the disappearance of CD 15-positive cells in the beneath the epidermis,(More)
Photosynthetic CO2 dependencies were measured for six lichen species, representing a variety of morphologies and collected from widely different habitats. All curves exhibited a linear increase in photosynthesis with increasing CO2 concentrations at the lower range of CO2 values, but little photosynthetic variation with increasing CO2 concentrations at the(More)
For objective evaluation of the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris standard techniques are desirable. They should be reproducible, sensitive and non-invasive. In this study non-invasive bioengineering techniques, especially high frequency/high resolution ultrasound for measurement of the healing of psoriasis vulgaris were evaluated. Fifty patients with chronic(More)
B-scan 20 MHz ultrasonography is a new non-invasive technique to study the skin architecture. In a study on 236 patients, we showed that ultrasonic investigations can provide an efficient means to determine the thickness and extension of tumors. In addition, ultrasound may help make the differential diagnosis. This method is particularly accurate in the(More)
We propose a model order reduction (MOR) approach for networks containing simple and complex components. Simple components are modeled by linear ODE (and/or DAE) systems, while complex components are modeled by nonlinear PDE (and/or PDAE) systems. These systems are coupled through the network topology using the Kirch-hoff laws. As application we consider(More)
A longitudinal study was carried out at 11 secondary schools (Gymnasium) of the city of Bochum to investigate the early and preclinical stages of developing varicose veins. The same pupils were examined when being in the 5th, 9th, and 13th classes (Bochum Study I, II and III). A significant correlation between familial predisposition and the occurrence of(More)
177 postmortems were analysed where the patients had been suffering from increased right ventricular strain with different underlying diseases. In accordance with the severity of the underlying disease the patients of the lung fibrosis and cardiac defect groups showed a significantly higher percentage of chronic hepatic stasis than those with silicosis and(More)