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The protozoan pathogens Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are major causes of waterborne enteric disease throughout the world. Improved detection methods that are very sensitive and rapid are urgently needed. This is especially the case for analysis of environmental water samples in which the densities of Giardia and Cryptosporidium are very low.(More)
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is an optical phenomena generated by light when it interacts with conductive nanoparticles (NPs) that are smaller than the incident wavelength. As in surface plasmon resonance, the electric field of incident light can be deposited to collectively excite electrons of a conduction band, with the result being coherent(More)
The marriage of microfluidics with detection technologies that rely on highly selective nucleic acid hybridization will provide improvements in bioanalytical methods for purposes such as detection of pathogens or mutations and drug screening. The capability to deliver samples in a controlled manner across a two-dimensional hybridization detection platform(More)
Single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) thymidylic acid icosanucleotides (dT20) were synthesized on the surfaces of derivatized quartz optical fibers to create an optical DNA biosensor. The synthesis made use of an automated solid-phase synthesizer and phosphoramidite synthons. The covalently immobilized oligomers were found to hybridize with(More)
AIMS 5'-Nuclease (real-time, quantitative) PCR methodologies were developed and applied as diagnostic tools for the detection of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria and Escherichia coli in water. METHODS AND RESULTS PCR was used to detect regions of the lacZ gene in E. coli, and the microcystin synthetase gene in microcystin-producing cyanobacteria. In(More)
Contamination of food and water supplies by microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, the need for point-of-care bedside analysis of biological samples, and concerns about terrorist attacks using biological organisms, have made the development of fast, reliable, and sensitive analytical methodologies for use in monitoring of pathogens very important. With a(More)
In this work, we describe and implement an electrokinetic approach for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination using a PDMS/glass-based microfluidic chip. The technique takes advantage of precise control of the coupled thermal (Joule heating), shear (electroosmosis), and electrical (electrophoresis) energies present at an array of probes(More)
The potential for a simultaneous two-colour diagnostic scheme for nucleic acids operating on the basis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been demonstrated. Upon ultraviolet excitation, two-colours of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with conjugated oligonucleotide probes act as energy donors yielding FRET-sensitized acceptor emission upon(More)
A fiber optic biosensor was used for the fluorimetric detection of T/AT triple-helical DNA formation. The surfaces of two sets of fused silica optical fibers were functionalized with hexaethylene oxide linkers from which decaadenylic acid oligonucleotides were grown in the 3'to 5'and 5'to 3'direction, respectively, using a DNA synthesizer. Fluorescence(More)
Interest in the unique optical properties of quantum dots (QDs) has resulted in the development QD-bioconjugates for imaging and diagnostics. Although these applications are numerous, considerably less is known about the interactions between QDs and biomolecules. In this work, we describe hydrogen-bonding interactions between oligonucleotides and CdSe/ZnS(More)