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The projections from the cortical vocal fold area were studied in five squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with the aid of the autoradiographic tracing technique. The location of the cortical vocal fold area was determined by exploring the exposed frontal cortex with roving electrodes while examining the larynx for vocal fold adduction. The following(More)
As Germany enters the 21st century, the traditional system of corporate governance, often referred to as " Deutschland AG " , has come under intense pressure to change. This report seeks to analyze the recent dynamics of the system to assess the extent to which they have already led to an erosion of the traditional characteristics. Many of the distinct(More)
The efferent and afferent connections of the supplementary motor area (SMA) were studied in 6 squirrel monkeys using [3H]leucine and horseradish peroxidase, respectively. Efferent projections, common to all leucine-injected animals, were found to the cortical areas 9,8,44,4,2,5,7,24 and 23. Subcortically , efferents were found to the putamen, caudate(More)
In 39 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), the effects of various brain lesions on vocalizations elicited from the precallosal cingulate gyrus were tested. It was found that lesions abolishing the "cingular vocalization" completely can be traced from the stimulation site continuously down to the laryngeal motoneurons in the nucleus ambiguus. The pathway(More)
Path dependency and " natural selection " mark the two poles in the debate on the transfer of institutions across borders. Path dependency implies that the observation of foreign institutions does not play a major role in the evolution of domestic institutions, and that, if learning does take place, it happens only within the framework of existing(More)
ßerhalb der statistischen Abgrenzung " Automobilindustrie "); • der Stand der Umsetzung und der Diffusion sowie der Dynamik des " phase in – phase out "-Prozesses. Abstract In recent years the intensity of innovation in the automotive industry has grown enormously. A third of all spending on research and development in manufacturing is to the account of the(More)
In 38 squirrel monkeys 251 vocalization-producing electrode positions were tested for their positive and negative reinforcing properties. Two groups of vocalization-producing brain areas could be distinguished: One group in which the electrically elicited vocalization was independent of the accompanying reinforcement effect, and a second group in which(More)
The effects of bilateral destruction of the cortical face area, anterior and posterior supplementary motor area and anterior cingular cortex on spontaneous vocalization were studied in 16 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Each type of lesion was made in two groups of two animals each. Both animals of a group received the same type of lesion at the same(More)
In 32 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) the role of the periaqueductal grey has been investigated by combined stimulation/lesioning and by neuroanatomical experiments. The results are as follows. Firstly, periaqueductal lesions invading the laterally adjacent tegmentum abolish species-specific calls elicitable by electrical brain stimulation. This holds(More)
The brain stems of 17 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were systematically explored for vocalization-related single-unit activity during calls electrically elicited from the periaqueductal grey. Of 12,280 cells tested, 1151 fired in relation to vocalization. Of these, 587 reacted to external acoustic stimuli and started firing after vocalization onset.(More)