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Because of their abundance, resistance to proteolysis, rapid aggregation and neurotoxicity, N-terminally truncated and, in particular, pyroglutamate (pE)-modified Abeta peptides have been suggested as being important in the initiation of pathological cascades resulting in the development of Alzheimer's disease. We found that the N-terminal pE-formation is(More)
The membrane-bound glycoprotein dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV, CD26) is a unique multifunctional protein, acting as receptor, binding and proteolytic molecule. We have determined the sequence and 1.8 A crystal structure of native DP IV prepared from porcine kidney. The crystal structure reveals a 2-2-2 symmetric tetrameric assembly which depends on the(More)
Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) is a proline-specific oligopeptidase with a reported effect on learning and memory in different rat model systems. Using the astroglioma cell line U343, PEP expression was reduced by an antisense technique. Measuring different second-messenger concentrations revealed an inverse correlation between inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate(More)
Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide released from pancreatic islet alpha-cells that acts to maintain euglycemia by stimulating hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Despite its importance, there remains controversy about the mechanisms responsible for glucagon clearance in the body. In the current study, enzymatic metabolism of glucagon was(More)
Mammalian cell lines were examined concerning their Glutaminyl Cyclase (QC) activity using a HPLC method. The enzyme activity was suppressed by a QC specific inhibitor in all homogenates. Aim of the study was to prove whether inhibition of QC modifies the posttranslational maturation of N-glutamine and N-glutamate peptide substrates. Therefore, the impact(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV) inhibitors are currently being developed to prolong the biological activity of insulinotropic peptides as a novel approach in the treatment of diabetes. We hypothesised that DP IV inhibition could attenuate the satiety actions of peptide YY (PYY) by altering the conversion of PYY(1-36) to PYY(3-36). (More)
The enzymatic conversion of one chromogenic substrate, l-glutamine-p-nitroanilide, and two fluorogenic substrates, l-glutaminyl-2-naphthylamide and l-glutaminyl-4-methylcoumarinylamide, into their respective pyroglutamic acid derivatives by glutaminyl cyclase (QC) was estimated by introducing a new coupled assay using pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase as the(More)
Modified amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides represent major constituents of the amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. In particular, N-terminal pyroglutamate (pGlu) following truncation renders Abeta more stable, increases hydrophobicity and the aggregation velocity. Recent evidence based on in vitro studies suggests that the cyclization(More)
A new inhibitor, H-Ala-Ile-pyrrolidin-2-yl boronic acid, was developed as an inhibitor against prolyl tripeptidyl aminopeptidase with a K(i) value of 88.1 nM. The structure of the prolyl tripeptidyl aminopeptidase complexed with the inhibitor (enzyme-inhibitor complex) was determined at 2.2 A resolution. The inhibitor was bound to the active site through a(More)
Inflammation is an integral part of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prevalent form of hepatic pathology found in the general population. In this context, recently we have examined the potential role of Glutaminyl Cyclases (QC and isoQC), and their inhibitors, in the maturation of chemokines, for example, monocyte chemoattractant protein(More)