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Hymenopteran endoparasitoids produce nuclear secretions from ovarian glands, which are deposited into the host insect together with the egg, protecting the developing parasitoid against the host's defence reactions. In the ichneumonid Venturia canescens, virus-like particles (VLPs), are attached to the egg surface and provide passive protection against(More)
Components of the insect clot, an extremely rapid forming and critical part of insect immunity, are just beginning to be identified (1). Here we present a proteomic comparison of larval hemolymph before and after clotting to learn more about this process. This approach was supplemented by the identification of substrates for the enzyme transglutaminase,(More)
Recent studies suggest that insects use pattern recognition molecules to distinguish prokaryotic pathogens and fungi from "self" structures. Less understood is how the innate immune system of insects recognizes endoparasitic Hymenoptera and other eukaryotic invaders as foreign. Here we discuss candidate recognition factors and the strategies used by(More)
Phylogenetically conserved serine protease cascades play an important role in invertebrate and vertebrate immunity. The mammalian coagulation system can be traced back some 400 million years and shares homology with ancestral serine proteinase cascades that are involved in, for example, Toll receptor signaling in insects and release of antimicrobial(More)
Clotting is critical in limiting loss of hemolymph and initiating wound healing in insects as well as in vertebrates. Clotting is also an important immune defense, quickly forming a secondary barrier to infection, thereby immobilizing, and possibly killing bacteria directly. Here, we describe methods to assess clotting and to extract the clot from(More)
Bacterial infections represent a serious health care problem, and all multicellular organisms have developed defense mechanisms to eliminate pathogens that enter the host via different paths including wounds. Many invertebrates have an open circulatory system, and effective coagulation systems are in place to ensure fast and efficient closure of wounds. It(More)
The molecular mechanism by which polydnaviruses of endoparasitoid wasps disrupt cell-mediated encapsulation reactions of host insects is largely unknown. Here we show that a polydnavirus-encoded protein, produced from baculovirus and plasmid expression vectors, prevents cell surface exposure of lectin-binding sites and microparticle formation during immune(More)
We have cloned a Drosophila homolog of the membrane fusion protein CDC48/p97. The open reading frame of the Drosophila homolog encodes an 801 amino acid long protein (TER94), which shows high similarity to the known CDC48/p97 sequences. The chromosomal position of TER94 is 46 C/D. TER94 is expressed in embryo, in pupae and in imago, but is suppressed in(More)
Insects and mammals share an ancient innate immune system comprising both humoral and cellular responses. The insect immune system consists of the fat body, which secretes effector molecules into the hemolymph and several classes of hemocytes, which reside in the hemolymph and of protective border epithelia. Key features of wound- and immune responses are(More)
Asexual (thelytokous) females of the parasitoid Venturia canescens, which develop inside another insect, exhibit evolutionarily stable mixtures of life-history strategies, allowing two genetically distinct wasp lines to coexist sympatrically on the same host resources. Since the two asexual lines differ in a virus-like particle protein-coding gene (VLP1),(More)