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Dendritic spines at excitatory synapses undergo rapid, actin-dependent shape changes which may contribute to plasticity in brain circuits. Here we show that actin dynamics in spines are potently inhibited by activation of either AMPA or NMDA subtype glutamate receptors. Activation of either receptor type inhibited actin-based protrusive activity from the(More)
Recent studies indicated a selective activation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of the amygdala known to play a decisive role in the processing of emotional stimuli. This study compared memory retention of emotional versus neutral text material over intervals covering either early sleep known to be dominated by nonREM slow wave sleep (SWS) or late(More)
BACKGROUND Sleep after learning supports memory consolidation. However, long-lasting memory effects of sleep have not yet been investigated. Postlearning sleep may be particularly involved in the long-term retention of emotional memories and could thereby contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disease thought to result from(More)
Improvement after practicing visual texture discrimination does not occur until several hours after practice has ended. We show that this improvement strongly depends on sleep. To specify the process responsible for sleep-related improvement, we compared the effects of 'early' and 'late' sleep, dominated respectively by slow-wave and rapid eye movement(More)
Insight denotes a mental restructuring that leads to a sudden gain of explicit knowledge allowing qualitatively changed behaviour. Anecdotal reports on scientific discovery suggest that pivotal insights can be gained through sleep. Sleep consolidates recent memories and, concomitantly, could allow insight by changing their representational structure. Here(More)
OBJECTIVE Since Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams," sleep has been related to emotional functions, where dreams were assumed to play a cathartic role. In psychophysiological research, this role was attributed mainly to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The present study compared processing pictures with negative emotional impact over intervals covering either(More)
Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on an acontextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of(More)
The tuberomammillary nucleus (TM), a cluster of magnocellular cells in the posterior hypothalamus, is the main source of neuronal histamine in the brain. Although this nucleus is well described in terms of anatomy and neurochemistry, only little is known about its function. Our earlier work showed that the TM projection system may be involved in behavioral(More)
The geometry of dendritic spines has a major impact on signal transmission at excitatory synapses. To study it in detail we raised transgenic mice expressing an intrinsic green fluorescent protein-based plasma membrane marker that directly visualizes the cell surface of living neurons throughout the brain. Confocal imaging of developing hippocampal slices(More)
The solution of a problem left unresolved in the evening can sometimes pop into mind as a sudden insight after a night of sleep in the following morning. Although favorable effects of sleep on insightful behavior have been experimentally confirmed, the neural mechanisms determining this delayed insight remain unknown. Here, using fMRI, we characterize the(More)