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Recent studies indicated a selective activation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of the amygdala known to play a decisive role in the processing of emotional stimuli. This study compared memory retention of emotional versus neutral text material over intervals covering either early sleep known to be dominated by nonREM slow wave sleep (SWS) or late(More)
BACKGROUND Sleep after learning supports memory consolidation. However, long-lasting memory effects of sleep have not yet been investigated. Postlearning sleep may be particularly involved in the long-term retention of emotional memories and could thereby contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disease thought to result from(More)
Tau is a neuronal microtubule-associated protein that appears to function in the formation and maintenance of axons by influencing microtubule organisation. Tau is a phosphoprotein and is more heavily phosphorylated in fetal than in adult brain, and is also hyperphosphorylated in Alzheimer's disease where it forms the major component of paired helical(More)
Improvement after practicing visual texture discrimination does not occur until several hours after practice has ended. We show that this improvement strongly depends on sleep. To specify the process responsible for sleep-related improvement, we compared the effects of 'early' and 'late' sleep, dominated respectively by slow-wave and rapid eye movement(More)
Guilt is a central moral emotion due to its inherent link to norm violations, thereby affecting both individuals and society. Furthermore, the nature and specificity of guilt is still debated in psychology and philosophy, particularly with regard to the differential involvement of self-referential representations in guilt relative to shame. Here, using(More)
Insight denotes a mental restructuring that leads to a sudden gain of explicit knowledge allowing qualitatively changed behaviour. Anecdotal reports on scientific discovery suggest that pivotal insights can be gained through sleep. Sleep consolidates recent memories and, concomitantly, could allow insight by changing their representational structure. Here(More)
The tuberomammillary nucleus (TM), a cluster of magnocellular cells in the posterior hypothalamus, is the main source of neuronal histamine in the brain. Although this nucleus is well described in terms of anatomy and neurochemistry, only little is known about its function. Our earlier work showed that the TM projection system may be involved in behavioral(More)
OBJECTIVE Since Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams," sleep has been related to emotional functions, where dreams were assumed to play a cathartic role. In psychophysiological research, this role was attributed mainly to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The present study compared processing pictures with negative emotional impact over intervals covering either(More)
Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on an acontextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of(More)
The tuberomammillary nucleus (TM), located in the posterior hypothalamic region, consists of five subgroups and is the only known source of brain histamine. Knowledge about the function of this nucleus is still scarce. In a previous study we found an increase in the rate of ipsihemispheric hypothalamic self-stimulation following a dc lesion in the(More)