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—We present a new approach for radiometric calibration of light detection and ranging (LIDAR) intensity data and demonstrate an application of this method to natural targets. The method is based on 1) using commercially available sand and gravel as reference targets and 2) the calibration of these reference targets in the laboratory conditions to know their(More)
Extracting forest variables from airborne laser scanner has less than 10 years of history. During that time, however, a new area in the field of forest studies has emerged. This paper describes existing algorithms and methods of airborne laser scanning that are used for forest measurements. The methods are divided into the following categories: 1)(More)
We have studied the possibility of calibrating airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data, using land targets typically available in urban areas. For this purpose, a test area around Espoonlahti Harbor, Espoo, Finland, for which a long time series of ALS campaigns is available, was selected. Different target samples (beach sand, concrete, asphalt,(More)
Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely(More)
In this paper, we present a method for 3D volumetric reconstruction of landscape from airborne laser scanner data. The method applies a voxel model, where volume is divided to sub-volume particles, voxels, associated with a scalar or vector value. In the presented study the voxel model is generated from airborne laser scanner data, which enables measurement(More)
A set of ERS SAR and optical MODIS-images were classified to land cover and tree species classes. Different methods for pixel and decision based data fusion were tested. Classifications of featuresets were carried out using Bayes rule for minimum error. The results were not very successful, the classification accuracies of land cover classes varied from 43%(More)
1 Introduction Societal decision making is often based on background information and its analysis, with a large portion of the information being spatial data. Common examples of this can be found in the fields of civil engineering, land use and transport planning, health care, and education. One objective of the Finnish National Geographic Information(More)
In this study, we carry out viewshed analysis to landscape voxel models derived from airborne laser scanner data. The objective is to make comparisons of viewshed analysis with different voxel models; the ground model representing the bare Earth, the surface model including also all above-ground features, and the combined model, which is formed from the(More)
A method based on extracted trunks is proposed for automatic determination of corresponding trees between a georeferenced pair of terrestrial images and airborne laser scanner data in a wooded area. Trunks in the terrestrial images are obtained by region growing segmentation between left and right edges of trunks detected within a region of interest. Trunks(More)
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