Ulla Kou Griffiths

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BACKGROUND Knowledge of treatment cost is essential in assessing cost effectiveness in healthcare. Evidence of the potential impact of implementing available interventions against childhood illnesses in developing countries challenges us to define the costs of treating these diseases. The purpose of this study is to describe the total costs associated with(More)
Few data sources are available to assess the global and regional risk of sequelae from bacterial meningitis. We aimed to estimate the risks of major and minor sequelae caused by bacterial meningitis, estimate the distribution of the different types of sequelae, and compare risk by region and income. We systematically reviewed published papers from 1980 to(More)
Increased walking and cycling in urban areas and reduced use of private cars could have positive effects on many health outcomes. We estimated the potential effect of increased walking and cycling in urban England and Wales on costs to the National Health Service (NHS) for seven diseases--namely, type 2 diabetes, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, breast(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has increased dramatically. Seventeen million people in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland suffer from grass pollen induced allergic rhinitis. Symptomatic therapy with antihistamines and topical steroids is partially effective but allergen-specific(More)
OBJECTIVE With support from the GAVI Alliance a fully liquid combined DTwP-HepB-Hib (pentavalent) vaccine in a single dose vial was introduced into Ethiopia's routine immunization services in March 2007. This vaccine was substituted with DTwP in a 10-dose vial. We aimed to estimate the incremental system costs of pentavalent vaccine delivery. METHODS Data(More)
OBJECTIVE Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine was introduced into routine immunization services in Kenya in 2001. We aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccine delivery. METHODS A model was developed to follow the Kenyan 2004 birth cohort until death, with and without Hib vaccine. Incidence of invasive Hib disease was estimated at(More)
The TRIVAC decision support model has been used widely in Latin America and other regions to help national teams evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rotavirus vaccine (RV). We describe the structure and functioning of this model, and identify the parameters with the(More)
The diagnosis and treatment of malaria is often based on syndromic presentation (presumptive treatment) and microscopic examination of blood films. Treatment based on syndromic approach has been found to be costly, and contributes to the development of drug resistance, while microscopic diagnosis of malaria is time-consuming and labour-intensive. Also,(More)
BACKGROUND One of the key concerns in determining the appropriateness of establishing a measles eradication goal is its potential impact on routine immunization services and the overall health system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of accelerated measles elimination activities (AMEAs) on immunization services and health systems in 6(More)
INTRODUCTION In recent years, an unprecedented emphasis has been given to the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The mainstay of STH control is school-based deworming (SBD), but mathematical modelling has shown that in all but very low transmission settings, SBD is unlikely to interrupt transmission, and(More)