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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Sexual behavior following voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) is described in 963 cohabiting heterosexual couples with one HIV positive and one HIV negative partner ('discordant couples'). Biological markers were used to assess the validity of self-report. METHODS Couples were recruited from a same-day VCT center in(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T cell responses were characterized in a blinded study involving infected individuals and their seronegative exposed uninfected (EU) partners from Lusaka, Zambia. HIV-1-specific T cell responses were detected ex vivo in all infected individuals and amplified, on average, 27-fold following in vitro(More)
The setpoint of viral RNA concentration (viral load [VL]) during chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection reflects a virus-host equilibration closely related to CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, which rely heavily on antigen presentation by the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (i.e., HLA) class I molecules.(More)
Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa are believed to occur between married adults who are discordant for their HIV-1 infection status; however, no studies to date have investigated the molecular epidemiology of such transmission events. Here we report the genetic characterization of HIV-1 strains from 149(More)
BACKGROUND Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. (More)
OBJECTIVE To describe symptoms, physical examination findings, and set-point viral load associated with acute HIV seroconversion in a heterosexual cohort of HIV-discordant couples in Zambia. DESIGN We followed HIV serodiscordant couples in Lusaka, Zambia from 1995 to 2009 with HIV testing of negative partners and symptom inventories 3 monthly, and(More)
We have established and characterized a cell line (designated Cb-E1A) that can be induced to display a variety of neuronal characteristics under simple culture conditions. This cell line was generated by retroviral-mediated gene transfer of the adenovirus 12S E1A-immortalizing gene in cerebellar cells isolated from one-week-old rats. Actively dividing cells(More)
BACKGROUND Use of new genomic techniques in clinical settings requires that such methods are rigorous and reproducible. Previous studies have shown that quantitation of donor-derived cell-free DNA (%ddcfDNA) by unbiased shotgun sequencing is a sensitive, non-invasive marker of acute rejection after heart transplantation. The primary goal of this study was(More)
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