Learn More
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
The accumulation of lipofuscin within postmitotic cells is a recognized hallmark of aging occurring with a rate inversely related to longevity. Lipofuscin is an intralysosomal, polymeric substance, primarily composed of cross-linked protein residues, formed due to iron-catalyzed oxidative processes. Because it is undegradable and cannot be removed via(More)
Cellular manifestations of aging are most pronounced in postmitotic cells, such as neurons and cardiac myocytes. Alterations of these cells, which are responsible for essential functions of brain and heart, are particularly important contributors to the overall aging process. Mitochondria and lysosomes of postmitotic cells suffer the most remarkable(More)
We propose a new mechanism for sphingosine-induced apoptosis, involving relocation of lysosomal hydrolases to the cytosol. Owing to its lysosomotropic properties, sphingosine, which is also a detergent, especially when protonated, accumulates by proton trapping within the acidic vacuolar apparatus, where most of its action as a detergent would be exerted.(More)
It is now generally accepted that aging and eventual death of multicellular organisms is to a large extent related to macromolecular damage by mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species, mostly affecting long-lived postmitotic cells, such as neurons and cardiac myocytes. These cells are rarely or not at all replaced during life and can be as old as(More)
The objective of this study was to examine the possible involvement of oxygen free radicals in the aging process. Rates of mitochondrial O2.- and H2O2 production and oxygen consumption in the kidney and the heart were compared among seven different mammalian species namely, mouse, hamster, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, pig, and cow, whose maximum life span(More)
A decrease in the turnover of cellular components and the intracellular accumulation of altered macromolecules and organelles are features common to all aged cells. Diminished autophagic activity plays a major role in these age-related manifestations. In this work we review the molecular defects responsible for the malfunctioning of two forms of autophagy,(More)
Controlled lysosomal rupture was initiated in lysosome-rich, macrophage-like cells by the synthetic lysosomotropic detergent, O-methyl-serine dodecylamide hydrochloride (MSDH). When MSDH was applied at low concentrations, resulting in partial lysosomal rupture, activation of pro-caspase-3-like proteases and apoptosis followed after some hours. Early during(More)
Oxidative stress, growth factor starvation, and activation of the Fas/APO-1/CD95 receptor all induce apoptosis in a variety of cell-types, including the established human Jurkat T-cell line. Oxidative stress, in the form of exposure of the cells to a bolus dose of hydrogen peroxide, results in intralysosomal, iron-catalyzed oxidative reactions. This is(More)