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INTRODUCTION Staphylococcus aureus is a known colonizer in humans and has been implicated in community acquired soft tissue infections. However emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus(MRSA) has aroused great concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA in the community of Bangalore, southern India. METHODS Swabs were(More)
Prevalence of etravirine genotypic resistance was assessed among 92 HIV-1C-infected patients failing nevirapine and efavirenz-based regimens from a cohort of 552 Indian patients. Overall, prevalence of etravirine cross-resistance identified using the Tibotec Weighted Score was 41% (31.5% intermediately-resistant and 9.8% fully-resistant). The most(More)
BACKGROUND High plasma viremia in HIV-1 infection is associated with rapid CD4 cell decline and faster disease progression. Children with HIV infection have high viral loads, particularly in early childhood. In this study we sought to understand the relationship between duration of HIV-1 infection and viral dynamics among perinatally-infected children and(More)
BACKGROUND After the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, surveillance of primary drug resistance mutations (DRMs) among ART-naive individuals has important public health benefits. Although a highly successful national ART programme initiated by the Government of India exists, data on the prevalence of primary DRMs is(More)
BACKGROUND India has the third largest HIV-1 epidemic with 2.4 million infected individuals. Molecular epidemiological analysis has identified the predominance of HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C). However, the previous reports have been limited by sample size, and uneven geographical distribution. The introduction of HIV-1C in India remains uncertain due to this(More)
Although India has a large burden of HIV infection, good access to first-line antiretroviral therapy is widely available. However, understanding HIV resistance-associated mutations and polymorphisms is critical for continued success. The RT region of the HIV-1 pol gene was studied among 21 ART-naive HIV-1-infected individuals from South India. In addition,(More)
Significant subtype-specific differences were observed in the protease (PR) region of the HIV-1 pol gene. Most of the previous studies were restricted to subtype B, although subtype C accounts for more than 50% of HIV infections worldwide. In this study we characterized PR sequences from primary clinical isolates from protease inhibitor (PI)-naive patients(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES Monitoring of HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) ideally requires periodic viral load measurements to ascertain adequate response to treatment. While plasma viral load monitoring is widely available in high-income settings, it is rarely used in resource-limited regions because of high cost and need for(More)
HIV-1 Clade C (Subtype C; HIV-1C) is responsible for greater than 50% of infections worldwide. Unlike clade B HIV-1 (Subtype B; HIV-1B), which is known to cause HIV associated dementia (HAD) in approximately 15% to 30% of the infected individuals, HIV-1C has been linked with lower prevalence of HAD (0 to 6%) in India and Ethiopia. However, recent studies(More)
Analysis of treatment response among HIV-infected children in India on first-line antiretroviral treatment for >2 years revealed that 85% were virologically suppressed. Of those with virologic failure, only 17% manifested immunologic failure, whereas majority had resistance-associated mutations. The presence of resistance highlights the need for virologic(More)