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This paper reviews the European activities in the field of tumour therapy with beams which have a Radio Biological Effectiveness (RBE) larger than 1. Initially neutron beams have been used. Then charged pions promised better cure rates so that their use was pursued in the framework of the ;Piotron' project at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland).(More)
On-line verification of the delivered dose during proton and carbon ion radiotherapy is currently a very desirable goal for quality assurance of hadron therapy treatment plans. In-beam positron emission tomography (ibPET), which can provide an image of the β+ activity induced in the patient during irradiation, which in turn is correlated to the range of the(More)
  • U Amaldi
  • Physica medica : PM : an international journal…
  • 2001
In 1991 INFN was first involved in R&D work in the field of hadrontherapy. In 1992 the TERA Foundation was created with the purpose of forming and employing people fully devoted to the design, promotion and construction of hadrontherapy centres in Italy and in Europe. This contribution reviews the present status of therapy with ion beams and describes the(More)
  • Ugo Amaldi
  • Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the…
  • 2004
In 1991 the author involved the Italian institute of nuclear physics (INFN) in R&D work in the field of hadrontherapy. In 1992 the TERA Foundation was created with the purpose of forming and employing people fully devoted to the design, promotion and construction of hadrontherapy centres in Italy and in Europe. The present contribution describes the main(More)
  • Ugo Amaldi
  • Zeitschrift für medizinische Physik
  • 2004
Hadrontherapy is the radiotherapy technique that uses protons, neutrons or carbon ions. Protons and ions, being, heavy' charged particles, allow a more, conformal' treatment than X-rays and thus spare better the surrounding healthy tissues. By now about 35,000 patients have been treated worldwide with protons and about 1,600 with carbon ions. Since few(More)
Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23, Switzerland AKHWien, Währinger Gürtel 18–20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, via Ripamonti 435, Milano, Italy Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, 69120(More)
As initial remark to this opening talk of EPAC2000 it can cursorily be said that particle accelerators are certainly important because the salaries and pension funds of the participants to this Conference depend on the existence, the running and the construction of accelerators. More seriously, it is useful to consider the three main uses of the primary and(More)
In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used(More)
The field of hadrontherapy has grown rapidly in recent years. At present the therapeutic beam is provided by a cyclotron or a synchrotron, but neither cyclotrons nor synchrotrons present the best performances for hadrontherapy. The new generation of accelerators for hadrontherapy should allow fast active energy modulation and have a high repetition rate, so(More)
The world averaged values of the electroweak and strong couplings and the lower limits on the proton lifetime are used for consistency checks of Grand Uni ed Theories (GUT). It is con rmed that new physics outside the Standard Model (SM) is required to obtain uni cation of the electroweak and strong forces. Such new physics could come from the minimal(More)