In this tutorial we present an overview of (i) what are HMMs, (ii) what are the diierent problems associated with HMMs, (iii) the Viterbi algorithm for determining the optimal state sequence, (iv) algorithms associated with training HMMs, and (v) distance between HMMs.
— We propose a Path Unaware Layered Routing Protocol (PULRP) for dense underwater 3D sensor networks. An up-link transmission is considered, where a set of underwater sensor nodes report events to the sink node. PURLP algorithm consists of two phases. In the first phase (layering phase), a layering structure is presented which is a set of concentric… (More)
This paper presents a novel method of blind image wa-termarking in contourlet domain. We have used spread spectrum technique for additive watermark embedding. A correlation detector is used to detect the embedded pseu-dorandom sequence. The binary logo thus retrieved proves authenticity of the image. The similarity of the retrieved binary logo with the… (More)
—Advances in 3G and 4G technology have offered many possibilities for developing novel applications using sensors embedded in hand held devices like cell phones. Mobility of cell phone based wireless sensor network has a critical issue of gathering sensed information in an energy efficient and delay sensitive manner. In this paper we provide a human… (More)