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CD36 is a sensor of diacylglycerides
TLDR
It is shown that an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced nonsense mutation of Cd36 causes a recessive immunodeficiency phenotype in which macrophages are insensitive to the R-enantiomer of MALP-2 (a diacylated bacterial lipopeptide) and to lipoteichoic acid.
Bacterial endotoxin: molecular relationships of structure to activity and function
TLDR
The biological analysis of synthetic lipid A partial structures proved that the expression of endotoxic activity depends on a unique primary structure and a peculiar endotoxic conformation, and molecular and submolecular details of the specificity of the interaction of lipid A with responsive host cells are determined.
Lipoteichoic Acid (LTA) of Streptococcus pneumoniaeand Staphylococcus aureus Activates Immune Cells via Toll-like Receptor (TLR)-2, Lipopolysaccharide-binding Protein (LBP), and CD14, whereas TLR-4
TLDR
The data suggest that innate immune recognition of LTA via LBP, CD14, and TLR-2 represents an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of systemic complications in the course of infectious diseases brought about by the clinically most important Gram-positive pathogens.
Innate immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana: lipopolysaccharides activate nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and induce defense genes.
TLDR
It is shown that Arabidopsis thaliana reacts to LPS with a rapid burst of NO, a hallmark of innate immunity in animals and contributes toward the activation of plant defense responses.
Novel fatty acid elongases and their use for the reconstitution of docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesiss⃞s⃞ The online version of this article (available at http://www.jlr.org) contains an additional
TLDR
DHA synthesis in stearidonic acid-fed yeast is successfully implemented by coexpression of the Δ6- and Δ5-elongases from T. tauri and O. pseudonana with the Δ5 and Δ4-desaturases from two other algae.
Defensins from Insects and Plants Interact with Fungal Glucosylceramides*
TLDR
Structurally homologous anti-fungal peptides present in species from different eukaryotic kingdoms interact with the same target in the fungal plasma membrane, namely glucosylceramides, and as such support the hypothesis that defensins from plants and insects have evolved from a single precursor.
Biosynthesis of Very-Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Transgenic Oilseeds: Constraints on Their Accumulationw⃞
TLDR
The successful production of VLCPUFA in transgenic oilseeds and the identification of constraints on their accumulation are indicated, which indicate alternative strategies to circumvent this bottleneck.
Functional characterization of β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase genes from Brassica napus L.
TLDR
The Bn-FAE1.1 gene from Askari showed seed-specific expression in transgenic rapeseed plants and over-expression of the coding region of the Askari gene in developing seeds of transgenic Drakkar plants resulted in a significant increase in the levels of eicosenoic acid and erucic acid esterified in the seed oil.
Glucosylceramide Synthases, a Gene Family Responsible for the Biosynthesis of Glucosphingolipids in Animals, Plants, and Fungi*
TLDR
A systematic functional analysis of a glycosyltransferase gene family with members of animal, plant, fungal, and bacterial origin found five novel glucosylceramide synthase genes were identified from the plant Gossypium arboreum, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fungi Magnaporthe grisea, Candida albicans, and P. pastoris.
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