Diversity, evolutionary specialization and geographic distribution of a mutualistic ant-plant complex: Macaranga and Crematogaster in South East Asia
Despite common sympatric distribution of Macaranga species, in most cases a surprisingly high specificity of ant colonization was maintained which was, however, often not species-specific but groups of certain plant species with identical ant partners could be found.
Studies of a South East Asian ant-plant association: protection of Macaranga trees by Crematogaster borneensis
In the humid tropics of SE Asia there are some 14 myrmecophytic species of the pioneer tree genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae), and strong aggressiveness and a mass recruiting system enable the ants to defend the host plant against many herbivorous insects.
Thrips pollination of the dioecious ant plant Macaranga hullettii (Euphorbiaceae) in Southeast Asia.
Intraspecific pollen transfer by thrips was proved by pollen loads of thrips taken from receptive pistillate inflorescences of M. hullettii, presenting evidence for thrips pollination in the dioecious pioneer tree genus Macaranga.
The diversity of ant-associated black yeasts: insights into a newly discovered world of symbiotic interactions.
Acropyga and Azteca Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with Scale Insects (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea): 20 Million Years of Intimate Symbiosis
A first report and description of Acropyga alates with mealybugs in Dominican amber dated to the Miocene is provided, a discovery indicating that this intimate association and relatively uncommon behavior has existed for at least 15–20 million years.
Molecular analysis of phylogenetic relationships among Myrmecophytic macaranga species (Euphorbiaceae).
- F. Blattner, K. Weising, G. Bänfer, U. Maschwitz, B. Fiala
- BiologyMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
- 1 June 2001
A molecular investigation of the plant partners' phylogeny of the Macaranga-Crematogaster system suggests multiple rather than a single evolutionary origin of myrmecophytism, at least one reversal from obligate myrmicine genus Crem atogaster to nonmyrmecoptera, and one loss of mutualistic specifity.
Studies on the south east Asian ant-plant associationCrematogaster borneensis/Macaranga: Adaptations of the ant partner
The ants are adapted to the plants so closely that they do not survive away from it, and their effective alarm system results in a mass attack, which provides adequate defence for the colony and the host plant.
Diversity of ant-plant interactions: protective efficacy in Macaranga species with different degrees of ant association
- B. Fiala, Harald Grunsky, U. Maschwitz, K. Linsenmair
- Environmental Science, BiologyOecologia
- 1 March 1994
The hypothesis that non-specific, facultative associations with ants can be advantageous for Macaranga plants is supported and food bodies appear to have lower attractive value for opportunistic ants than EFN and may require a specific dietary adaptation.
Alarm pheromones of the sting in the genus Apis
Mushroom harvesting ants in the tropical rain forest
The discovery of a new lifestyle in ants is reported, which is the most efficient and predominant consumer of epigeic mushrooms in the studied habitat and this has broad implications for the tropical rainforest ecosystem.