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Sprites produced by quasi‐electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere
Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electronExpand
Identification of sprites and elves with intensified video and broadband array photometry
Confusion in the interpretation of standard-speed video observations of optical flashes above intense cloud-to-ground lightning discharges has persisted for a number of years. New high-speed (3000Expand
Numerical Electromagnetics: The FDTD Method
1. Introduction 2. Review of electromagnetic theory 3. Partial differential equations and physical systems 4. The FDTD grid and the Yee algorithm 5. Numerical stability of finite difference methodsExpand
Monte Carlo simulation of runaway MeV electron breakdown with application to red sprites and terrestrial gamma ray flashes
A three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of the uniform relativistic runaway electron breakdown in air in the presence of static electric and magnetic fields is used to calculate electron distributionExpand
Electrical discharge from a thundercloud top to the lower ionosphere
A video recording of a blue jet propagating upwards from a thundercloud to an altitude of about 70 km is reported, taken at the Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico, to speculate that it may be common and therefore represent an unaccounted for component of the global electric circuit. Expand
Elves triggered by positive and negative lightning discharges
Optical flashes in the lower ionosphere due to the transient heating caused by lightning electromagnetic pulses (EMP) are unambiguously identified with the Fly's Eye photometric array. Data from aExpand
LEAP: Layout Design through Error-Aware Transistor Positioning for soft-error resilient sequential cell design
This paper presents a new layout design principle called LEAP which is an acronym for Layout Design through Error-Aware Transistor Positioning. This principle extends beyond traditional layoutExpand
Observations of relativistic electron microbursts in association with VLF chorus
The Solar, Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite frequently observes relativistic (> 1 MeV) electron precipitation in the radiation belts at L shells of 4–6 with burstyExpand
Spatial structure of sprites
A theory of the electrical breakdown (EB) above thunderstorms is developed. The streamer type of the EB is proposed for the explanation of recent observations of fine spatial structures and bursts ofExpand
Satellite observations of lightning‐induced electron precipitation
Lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) from the Earth's radiation belt has been observed on numerous occasions with detectors on the low-altitude S81-1/SEEP satellite. A sequence of seven LEPExpand