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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
TLDR
These guidelines are presented for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. Expand
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
TLDR
A set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes are presented. Expand
Lipofuscin: mechanisms of age-related accumulation and influence on cell function.
TLDR
Lipofuscin may be much more directly related to cellular degeneration at old age than was hitherto believed and diminish autophagocytotic capacity by acting as a sink for newly produced lysosomal enzymes and, therefore, interfere with recycling of cellular components. Expand
The mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of aging: accumulation of damaged mitochondria as a result of imperfect autophagocytosis.
TLDR
Advanced lipofuscin accumulation may greatly diminish lysosomal degradative capacity by preventing lysOSomal enzymes from targeting to functional autophagosomes, further limiting mitochondrial recycling. Expand
Autophagy and Aging: The Importance of Maintaining "Clean" Cells
TLDR
This work reviews the molecular defects responsible for the malfunctioning of two forms of autophagy - macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophage - in old mammals, and highlights general and cell-type specific consequences of dysfunction of the autophagic system with age. Expand
Necroptosis, necrosis and secondary necrosis converge on similar cellular disintegration features
TLDR
Subcellular events during tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis, H2O2-induced necrosis and anti-Fas-induced secondary necrosis were studied using high-resolution time-lapse microscopy to characterize the cellular disintegration phase of the three types of necrosis. Expand
Lysosomal enzymes promote mitochondrial oxidant production, cytochrome c release and apoptosis.
Exposure of mammalian cells to oxidant stress causes early (iron catalysed) lysosomal rupture followed by apoptosis or necrosis. Enhanced intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS),Expand
What does the commonly used DCF test for oxidative stress really show?
TLDR
The results suggest that DCF-dependent fluorescence largely reflects relocation to the cytosol of lysosomal iron and/or mitochondrial cytochrome c. Expand
Sphingosine-induced apoptosis is dependent on lysosomal proteases.
TLDR
Cathepsin D and one or more cysteine proteases, such as cathepsins B or L, are important mediators of sphingosine-induced apoptosis, working upstream of the caspase cascade and mitochondrial membrane-potential changes. Expand
Mitochondrial turnover and aging of long-lived postmitotic cells: the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of aging.
TLDR
In this review, the importance of crosstalk between mitochondria and lysosomes in aging is stressed and the slow accumulation of lipofuscin within lysOSomes seems to depress autophagy, resulting in reduced turnover of effective mitochondria. Expand
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