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Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects—2010
TLDR
It will take at least another 7–9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation and it was confirmed that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. Expand
Exposure-triggered reproductive toxicity testing under the REACH legislation: a proposal to define significant/relevant exposure.
TLDR
This paper proposes to define relevant/significant exposure based on an endpoint-specific TTC approach, starting from a comparison of the tentative external exposure to the specific TTC, which can be followed by a refinement of exposure estimates and may culminate in the experimental determination of internal and target tissue exposure. Expand
Biotransformation of trichloroethene: dose-dependent excretion of 2,2,2-trichloro-metabolites and mercapturic acids in rats and humans after inhalation
TLDR
The results confirm the finding of the urinary excretion of mercapturic acids in humans after TRI exposure and suggest the formation of reactive intermediates in the metabolism of TRI after bioactivation by glutathione also in humans. Expand
Biotransformation of 12C- and 2-13C-labeled methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, and tert-butyl alcohol in rats: identification of metabolites in urine by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance
TLDR
The results suggest that tert-butyl alcohol formed from MTBE and ETBE is intensively metabolized by further oxidation reactions, and studies to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity for these ethers to the kidney need to consider potential toxicities induced by these metabolites. Expand
Biotransformation of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME after inhalation or ingestion in rats and humans.
TLDR
Exposure to MTBE, ETBE, and TAME in rats and humans is rapid, and biotransformation and excretion of MTBE and ETBE are identical in rats, and kinetics of excretion were identical after ingestion and inhalation exposures. Expand
The use of metabolising systems for in vitro testing of endocrine disruptors.
TLDR
This detailed review paper reviews why in vitro assays for EAS should incorporate mammalian systems of metabolism and metabolic enzyme systems, and indicates how this could be done and some recommendations for future activities are made. Expand
Human CYP2E1 mediates the formation of glycidamide from acrylamide
TLDR
It is concluded that AA is metabolized to GA primarily by CYP2E1, and the involvement, for the first time, of human CYP 2E1 in the formation of GA from AA is described. Expand
Extrahepatic metabolism at the body's internal–external interfaces
TLDR
This review summarizes the knowledge on the expression of phase I and phase II XMEs and transporters in extrahepatic tissues at the body's internal–external interfaces in the lung, kidney, bladder and skin. Expand
Toxicokinetics as a key to the integrated toxicity risk assessment based primarily on non-animal approaches.
TLDR
The need for high-quality in vitro and in silico data on absorption, distribution, metabolism as well as excretion as input for PBTK models to predict human dose-response curves is currently a bottleneck for integrative risk assessment. Expand
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