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Genotypic or phenotypic markers for characterization of natural populations of marine microalgae have typically addressed questions regarding differentiation among populations, usually with reference to a single or few clonal isolates. Based upon a large number of contemporaneous isolates from the same geographical population of the toxigenic species(More)
Unicellular dinoflagellates are an important group of primary producers within the marine plankton community. Many of these species are capable of forming harmful algae blooms (HABs) and of producing potent phycotoxins, thereby causing deleterious impacts on their environment and posing a threat to human health. The recently discovered toxigenic(More)
Marine chemical ecology comprises the study of the production and interaction of bioactive molecules affecting organism behavior and function. Here we focus on bioactive compounds and interactions associated with phytoplankton, particularly bloom-forming diatoms, prymnesiophytes and dinoflagellates. Planktonic bioactive metabolites are structurally and(More)
Members of the marine dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium are known to exude allelochemicals, unrelated to well-known neurotoxins (PSP-toxins, spirolides), with negative effects on other phytoplankton and marine grazers. Physico/chemical characterization of extracellular lytic compounds of A. tamarense, quantified by Rhodomonas salina bioassay, showed that the(More)
Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot(More)
Phycotoxins produced by various species of toxigenic microalgae occurring in the plankton are a global threat to the security of seafood resources and the health of humans and coastal marine ecosystems. This has necessitated the development and application of advanced methods in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for monitoring of(More)
Some species of the planktonic dinoflagellate genus Azadinium produce azaspiracids (AZAs), a group of lipophilic phycotoxins causing human poisoning after mussel consumption. We describe three new species from the North Atlantic, all of which shared the same Kofoidean plate pattern characteristic for Azadinium: Po, cp, X, 4', 3a, 6″, 6C, 5S, 6'″, 2″″.(More)
A real-time PCR assay for the detection of species from the genera Azadinium and Amphidoma (family Amphidomataceae) was developed in order to screen field samples and to aid in the isolation of azaspiracid (AZA)-producing dinoflagellates. The assay was highly specific and sensitive and allowed the rapid detection of target species. Samples collected as part(More)
Two strains of Azadinium poporum, one from the Korean West coast and the other from the North Sea, were mass cultured for isolation of new azaspiracids. Approximately 0.9 mg of pure AZA-36 (1) and 1.3 mg of pure AZA-37 (2) were isolated from the Korean (870 L) and North Sea (120 L) strains, respectively. The structures were determined to be(More)